To reveal the degree of influence of professional pedagogical training in university on dynamics of students´ personality development, process of his individuality and readiness for professional work in modern conditions, to know the attitude of a future specialist to the content and technologies of professional activity training, we conducted research in Nevinnomyssk State Institute of Liberal Arts and Technical Education.
The object of the research was a definition of student´s social and demographic, psychological and pedagogical characteristics and an estimation of the degree of influence of the content and technologies of higher education on personal and professional development of a future specialist. To achieve the stated object we had to make an integrated research with the participation of teachers, psychologists, sociologists. At the same time, a pedagogical component is integrating and complexing, because the conditions and the degree of the influence of professional training and education on future specialist´s personal development, on his cognitive, value, creative, communicative, operational and activity potential are studied.
The research was made upon the Department of Engineering, Education and Polytechnic Departments of Nevinnomyssk State Institute of Liberal Arts and Technical Education and included about 200 first-year students and graduates. While starting the work we suggested a hypothesis that students´ successful study, efficiency of their professional competence formation depended on how the complex of student´s social and demographic, biological and physiological, psychological and pedagogical characteristics was taken into consideration in the process of educational space engineering. Among the variety of indices, defining his social portrait, the most significant were the following: place of residence, family role and composition, type of educational institution, which future student finished, level of health, causes of university and supposed profession choice, level of self-concept, claims, formation of personal and professional value orientations, type of out-of-school interests, their width and etc.
In the course of the research the following methods were applied: questionnaire, interview, analysis of students´ study results and etc.
Let´s illustrate the results of the demonstrative step of the research on the basis of two departments.
Social and demographic characteristics of students´ families turned out to be quite predictable and expected. Social, material and educational level of students´ parents of Polytechnic Department is considerably higher. On Education and Engineering Department there are 31, 56% first-year students from the families of office workers, and 68, 44% - from the families of workers, but on Polytechnic Department - 87, 23% of students, whose parents are office workers and business owners and only 12, 77% - workers. Also on Polytechnic Department there are 67, 35% of students from the town and 32, 65% - from countryside, but on Education and Engineering Department there are only 32, 27% of students from the town, the rest 67, 73% - from countryside.
However the students of Education and Engineering Department finished lyceums, gymnasiums, classes with advanced study of different subjects, but on Polytechnic Department - 21, 11% of first-year students are the school-leavers of innovative educational institutions and 78, 89 % - of traditional schools.
But the analysis of students´ academic progress didn´t reveal any convincing connection between the type of educational institution, which a school-leaver finished and the marks, which were received on the exams. A direct dependence of the academic progress level on students´ physical condition wasn´t revealed.
The most important factor, traditionally defining students´ advancement in educational process, is motivation. The incentives, directing students´ education, were distributed the following way: a motive to acquire deep and sound knowledge - 66, 42%, an urge to take a respectable social place - 60, 54%, communication opportunity - 47, 31%, an aspiration for getting an important profession, which is claimed in modern society - 40, 26%, to learn how to widen knowledge on one´s own - 22, 45%, to do a research activity - 3, 27%.
The basic motives, making students study, are: a motive to pass exams successfully - 78, 31%, to prepare for lessons well - 31, 21%, to see friends - 27, 18%. Unfortunately, a motive to acquire knowledge have only 4, 17% of examined students. Questionnaire, discussions, interviews showed that first-year students poorly imagine the connection between the received knowledge and future professional activity. This circumstance causes the dominance of outer motives of cognitive activity: attendance in accordance with previously formed interests, subject enthusiasm, positive attitude towards the teacher, need for communication and etc.
Preliminary results of the research and the analysis of publications about the problem show that educational situation, formed in modern institute of higher education, favours little with personal formation of a student in educational activity. With that students´ educational and scientific activities aren´t stimulated enough, situation of social development, typical age characteristics (contradictoriness of value orientations, criticality and instability of self-appraisal and claim level, tendency to solve different problems on one´s own and a fear of personal responsibility, initiative, readiness for risk, personal, civic, professional self-determination and etc) aren´t taken into consideration.
Graduates (5 year students), as a rule, besides study solve other problems: they strive for a work, connected with the major, settle down to married life, determine personal, civic, social and political priorities. Everything taken together come into conflict with regulated enough university activity and make difficulties for a development of professional self-consciousness, cognitive processes, communicative culture - leading types of activity and psychic new formations, typical for the students as a specific age, social and professional group. These circumstances exactly can explain students´ study interest drop from year to year .
Everyone knows that half of graduates doesn´t work in education, and this fact in a great measure reflects a dynamics of students´ professional motivation and there are the causes both of social, economical and psychological, pedagogical character. Irregularity of the process of future specialist formation, expressing in professional crises, among which are the crises of search and profession choice, professional education crises, can be referred to the last mentioned causes.
The preliminary results of our research let us make a conclusion that educational process in modern institute of higher education doesn´t stimulate enough personal and professional development of a student. It might be supposed that the orientation on diagnostics of students´ social, demographic, psychological and cognitive peculiarities makes possible the realization of personal oriented approaches to a future specialist training.
- Povarenkov Y. P. Psychological content of man´s professional formation. - M., 2009.
The work was submitted to international scientific conference «Present-day problems of science and education», Russia, (Moscow), May 11-13, 2010. Recieved by the editorship on 07.04.2010.