The man (especially it concerns the adult person) should learn how to structurally cooperate with other people, with the world around, with himself. The perfection of this process occurs during all life. But the stage of school training is especially important, where the child enters the special relations with adults and other children, which can be designated as area of pedagogical interactions.
In analyzing pedagogical interactions in an actual educational situation, it is necessary not only to characterize their structure and form, but also to reveal interactive methods and receptions, which promote development of cognitive activity of students.
Methods of development of cognitive activity promote the involving of the students in active processing the reception and storage of knowledge. It is necessary to relate to them group work, educational discussion, game modeling, educational dialogue, «a round table», «session of expert group», «debate», «judicial session», «about dialogues», «brain storm» etc. These forms of training are important for students, as they allow everyone to join in discussion and solution of a problem, to listen to other points of view, to see multiregularity of a task etc. These tasks, as the psychologists note, allow students to solve difficult problems themselves, instead of simply being the observers. These methods create potentially higher opportunities of transporting of knowledge and learning experiences from an educational situation to the real. They also allow «to compress» the time and are psychologically attractive to the students.
Despite of variety of the forms of interactive methods realization, there are certain rules, which observe involve reflective thinking and provide children with interactive skills of behavior. These rules include:
- there are no «actors» and «spectators», all are participants;
- each participant deserves to be listened to, not interrupted;
- if the given information is not quite clear, the questions «about understanding» are asked and only after that are the conclusions made;
- the ideas may be criticized but not the person;
- the purpose of discussion is not in proving the «rightness» of an opinion, but in an opportunity to find the best decision, having learned the different points of view on a problem.
In preparation for conducting these activities, the teacher should:
- set questions with an «open end» (i.e. such, which are focused not on one correct answer, but on the statement of the various points of view on a problem);
- realize his position not as guiding in interaction, but as a neutral facilitator, that enables the students to state various points of view in the class without fear to be interrupted or stopped etc.;
- analyze the lesson for situations, where the interaction with the pupils fell apart, why that happened, how to avoid it in future etc.;
- make notes on the success of the lesson, its culmination, productivity etc.
The serious job of adapting and following these recommendations to use in a school is necessary. In this connection, working out proper program is the main component in the process of reorganization of Russian school. Development of this program assumes:
- technique of «implementing» interactive methods of studying;
- improvement of educating techniques in small cooperative groups;
- development of methodology of solving problems (situational analysis, game, imitation of situations);
- research of diverse perspectives (critical statement of questions, disputes, brain storms);
- realization of methods of management of group process (how to implement interactive, teaching to cope with noise and other techniques of class management).
Rather than an abrupt switch from one system of education to another, it is necessary to have a transition period, in which students are prepared for another role - mobile role in an academy situation. Therefore it is necessary to take into account both a student, who is ready for this form of studying and the one who occupies a passive position in educational interaction and should master the skills of group interaction, which promotes the development of cognitive activity.
I. Expressed objective position: the student is passive, poorly reacts to the requests of the teacher, and does not show interest neither in joint, nor in individual work, joins in the activity only as a result of pressure of the teacher. These students do not have developed emotional, intellectual and behavioral skills for training in interaction. Non-active level of educational interaction.
II. Mainly objective position: the active involvement of this student is shown only in the certain situations (interesting contents of a lesson, unusual ways of teaching etc.). The readiness for interaction is shown at on emotional level but is not supported by known skills of productive cooperation. From time to time, this student shows good results in group work, however success is not constant. Cognitive-emotional level of educational interaction.
III. Mainly subjective position: the student has acquired successful of educational cooperation, easily joins in and accepts group work, has knowledge capable to accelerate search of the common decision. Their previous success provides emotional readiness for joint activity. Thus the student recognizes the teacher as a facilitating person in educational interaction. Cognitive-mobile level of educational interaction.
IV. Expressed subjective position: the student in educational interaction asserts mainly his own position, assumes (as justified or unjustified) the role of the leader, often resists the opinion of group, or the opinion of the teacher. This type of student is the most difficult for the teacher in encouraging of educational interaction because success is dependent not only on the ability of the student to cooperate, but also from readiness of the teacher to accept questions and decisions offered the student. Cognitive-creative level of educational interaction.
These levels of cognitive activity provide a dynamic parameter to teaching. Teacher, tutor and pedagogue can help the student proceed from an non-active level on cognitive-emotional, from latter - on cognitive-mobile etc.
We will try to analyze psycho-pedagogical features of cognitive activity of every type, and to determine tactics and strategy of organization of educational interactions with each group.
A teacher´s tactics of working with students in the first non-active level are based on creation of an atmosphere in class, which would let the student get rid of fear and awkwardness. S.L. Rubinstein emphasized, that «it is easier to do your work in friendly, than in spiteful environment... Malevolence holds down, paralyses, especially sensitive and unstable people. If they feel a benevolent atmosphere, they find themselves at once, regain their compose and show themselves from the most positive side». And the feeling of inside freedom is one of the main factors promotes the state of readiness for stirring up of efforts, attract attention and activity.
It is important for the teacher to establish the kind, friendly contact with the students of this level. The basic technique assisting to achieve this is an «emotional stroke»:
- to call students only by their names;
- to not avoid a praise and approval;
- to keep an even voice tone, with stimulating intonation while conducting classes;
- to touch the child, calming or encouraging, if necessary;
- positive construction of phrases: avoid saying: «If you will not carry out my requirements, I...», without orders: « Stop talking!» and so on.
This transition is possible due to the special atmosphere of lessons focused on psychological emancipation and emotional inclusion of the students in general educational activity. The path is: a state of comfort, openness → removal of fear before joint educational work → readiness to join in cooperation with the teacher or classmates → expectation and emotional readiness for the new forms of educational interactions. Thus, the teacher prepares a student for gradual transition from non-active to cognitive-emotional level of educational interactions.
The educational activity of students of the second level depends on emotional attractiveness of educational interactions (novelty of studies, certain ease in achievement of result etc.). If it is interesting, they join in educational job with pleasure. In contrast during the traditional lesson the desire to cooperate, which is not supported by intellectual efforts and appropriate achievement, is noticeably reduced. Because these students have no specific knowledge and educational skills about, such inclusions occur infrequently.
Tactics of educational interaction with the students of this level of activity involves in an emotional reinforcement of their subjective (mobile) condition in educational activity and in formation of the basic initial skills of joint activity. The pedagogical strategy consists of a focus on the basic skills of successful joint activity. Readiness and skills to facilitate the certain educational purpose, including emotional, intellectual and behavioral features, are characteristic of the student with a cognitive-mobile level of educational interaction in education.
The students of this level accept with readiness those forms of work, which are offered them by the teacher, react adequately to an educational task, frequently offer original ways of making decisions and can work both independently and in groups. But these students begin to get bored during a lesson, if the learning material is simple enough, or if the teacher is engaged with weaker classmates. Gradually they get used to having limits of an educational task and do not want or desire to search for the non-standard more creative decisions. They prefer to work independently, avoiding joining in educational interactions with their classmates. Thus, there is a danger of regression of pedagogical interactions from a mobile-conducted level to cognitive-emotional position. That is why pedagogical work with the industrious students is just as important, as for the students of the first and second levels of cognitive activity.
In discussing the basic techniques for joining in students at the cognitive-mobile level of cognitive activity, it is possible to name all problem, partial - search and heuristic situations, which are created at lessons. It is possible to offer students the special role situations: one can work at a lesson as an «expert», another as an «observer», estimates the course and rate of the lesson; third in a role of «wise man» sums up etc.
Hence, tactics of educational interaction for the teacher to use with the students of this level consists of support of the cognitive-active position of the student. The pedagogical strategy of the teacher in working with the given students consists in motivating them to see themselves not only as «conducted», but also as «conducting».
Interaction with the students of fourth, cognitive-creative level, are developed mainly between the student and teacher. During group work these students aspire to ratify themselves in a role of a leader. Sometimes such situation results that the leaders «discourage» activity and initiative of other students.
On the one hand, it is necessary to offer students such forms of educational interactions, which successful performance depends in the greater measure on joint efforts of the whole group, instead of on one student. On the other hand, the teacher also should create conditions for realization of student´s leadership; otherwise educational interaction becomes a situation of antagonism. Therefore the students of cognitive-mobile level can be offered more difficult tasks, rather than other classmates. The successful performance of such task will increase the leader position of the student, and in case of failure the teacher can ask the group «for help», showing the positive aspect of cooperation.
Thus, tactics of pedagogical interactions in the work with students of a cognitive-mobile level in educational interaction consists in creating conditions, where the leader position of the student is realized without affecting other classmates. The pedagogical strategy is focused on formation of consciousness and behavior of students with skills of joint work with other students.
Summing up consideration of forming cognitive activity in educational activity, we are going to stop with the organization and realization of lessons. The structure of similar lessons provides not less than four basic models. The educational interactions can be realized linearly: consecutive work of the teacher with every group of the students. The lesson can be based on «mosaic» interaction supposing inclusion in educational activity of appropriate groups depending on an educational task. The lesson can be active: when the conducting role in educational interaction is given to the students with a high level of activity for training others. And at last, the interactions at a lesson can be complex, if there is combination of all offered variants. The main criterion of a lesson should become the inclusion of the various forms of educational interactions for all the students without exceptions, at a level of their real and potential opportunities.
Thus, forming of cognitive activity of students deviates only from pedagogical problems, but should be the subject of research of psycho-social sciences.