Nowadays the idea of the world as an integrated organism, all the parts of which affect each other, is more and more widely spread. Nature is meant as an integral living organism, the transformations of which are possible only within certain limits. To learn the today´s complex, dissonant, fast-paced world, system-structural, global-evolutionary concepts are needed, among which an important place Synergetics (or the theory of self-organization) takes. Theoretical aspects of Synergetics were developed in the works of H. Haken (German school of laser Physics), I. Prigizhin (Belgian school of dissipative structures), L.I.Mandelstam, S.P. Kurdyumov, G.G. Malinetsky (Russian school of nonlinear dynamics). Synergetics studies complex open unbalanced systems able to self-organization. Such systems can be of different nature, that is why the ideas and principles of Synergetics find application in many spheres of human activity.
From the position of the future professional activity it is necessary to form in the students of a pedagogical educational institution a nonlinear (synergetic) direction in thinking, which we shall understand as the mentality considering the outworld and the human to be complex open dynamic systems oriented on the revelation of universal bonds and relations, functional nature of chaos, instability and chance. Because of the impossibility to settle upon the analysis of the "nonlinear direction in thinking" notion, let us note that it is given on the basis of the works of S.P. Kurdyumov, Ye.N.Knyazeva, L.A. Mikeshina, I.S. Dobronravova, V.M. Darmograi and others.
As the principle characteristics of the nonlinear direction in thinking one can mark the following:
- criticism and abstractiveness in conjunction with the ability to relate the ideal model to the real process;
- logical rigor, conclusiveness and argumentativeness coupled with the readiness to treat a fallback position;
- conation to nature, intentions and phenomena investigation;
- immensity, orientation on the revelation of depth relations and interdependence between the processes and phenomena of different nature;
- manifoldness (an approach to a problem from different sides, the readiness to an objective analysis of an opponent´s point of view);
- readiness to actions in the situation of instability, crisis, when it is needed to consider and investigate an apron of probable consequences of the actions, taking into account the degree of their coherence with the inner condition of the system;
- complementarity (the unity of the conscious and preconscious, reasonable and emotional, rational and irrational, intuitional).
Let us consider the possibilities of the content of the State Educational Standards of Higher Pedagogical Education for the formation of the specified characteristics of the direction in thinking in students.
First, the Standard contains the discipline "Concepts of modern natural science", within the framework of which the ideas of synergetics, its matter, principles and concepts can be formed. The content of the given unit in the course "Concepts of modern natural science" can be briefly presented in a cut and adapted for students form as follows.
- Basic notions of Synergetics: order and chaos; reversible and irreversible processes, "time arrow"; chance and uncertainty, fluctuation and bifurcation point, dissipative structure, open unbalanced system; nonlinearity, instability; resonant influence.
- Principles of Synergetics: unpredictability of choice in bifurcation points, its being influenced by not only the present and past, but also the future; the possibility of appearing the order from the chaos; the whole is not equal to the sum of the components, it is a principally new composition; high efficiency of resonant influence; the time irreversibility in bifurcation points, "forgetting" the previous state by the system passed a bifurcation point.
- The possibility of using Synergetics statements for the investigation of various nature systems, its cross-disciplinary and methodological value.
In the process of studying basic concepts and principles of Synergetics it is necessary to form the idea in students that they promote the drawing together of the scientific and humanitarian cultures, have a sizable effect on the scientific worldview formation and outlook ideas of a human being. The person itself acquires a special significance, becomes a real power able to affect the choice of further development trends of the nonsteady world in the light of Synergetics ideas.
Second, a significant positive result can be obtained if in addition to the mentioned content the following two aspects directly oriented on the future professional activity will be considered. the first aspect lies in the purposeful revelation of the possibilities to apply the ideas of Synergetics in academic fields corresponding to the training profile of the future teacher; for example, the use of ideas and methods of Synergetics in Linguistics, History and Social Sciences, etc. The second aspect - is the revelation of possibilities of a concrete school subject for the formation of a nonlinear direction in thinking characteristics in learners.
Third, a competently organized student´s scientific work, which most often is represented by pedagogic and methodological research in a pedagogical higher institution, will have a great effect on the formation of the abovementioned characteristics of the nonlinear direction in thinking. The organization and carrying out a research work (including a student´s one) supposes a mastery of a range of skills in planning, realization, analysis and scientific findings admittance. In the most part of students´ pedagogical research the student teaching state analysis and use of experimental work elements are assumed. It is this that allows drawing students´ attention to the fact that the education represents a complex social organism, which cannot be closed. Nowadays the predominant point of view is the position that the system of education should be flexible, quickly enough adapting to social environment changes. Besides, the learner (who the influence of the educational system is aimed at) is also an open complex system. Therefore the idea of the learner´s development, education and upbringing control is persistently sounding in pedagogical theory and practice. The understanding and application of these statements by the student in his research work is one of the necessary conditions of the specified mentality characteristics formation in him.
Reckoning up, let us note that in the submitted article only some possibilities of the nonlinear mentality characteristics formation in a pedagogical higher education institution student have been considered.The article is admitted to the International Scientific Conference "Development prospects of higher school science", Sochi (Dagomys), 20-23th September, 2007, came to the editorial office on 09.11.07.