Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT FEATURES AND LONG TERM ADAPTATION STRATEGY

Vysochin Yu.V., Denisenko Yu.P., Chuyev V.A.
At more or less long term exposure of the body to some or other adaptogenic factors different types of long term adaptation or individual development are formed. In the people with the low capacity of inhibitory-relaxation functional system of defence from extreme conditions or factors (IRFSD), irrespective of their age, the adaptation occurs on account of muscle bulk and strength increase against the low muscle relaxation rate, i.e. a hypertrophic type of individual development is formed. At the average IRFSD capacity a transition type, and at the high IRFSD capacity - a relaxation type of individual development are formed. The last type a high relaxation rate and medium factors of muscles´ power are indicative of (Vysochin Yu.V., 1983, 1988; Denisenko Yu. P., Vysochin Yu.V., 2004).

At long term adaptation the significant morphofunctional alterations affect not only the neuromuscular, but all the other systems of the body as well. In hypertrophic type people hyperexcitability and low activity of the CNS inhibitory systems are registered, the hyperkinetic (uneconomical) blood circulation type (CT) and extremely disharmonic somatotype prevail. A low economical and operation heart efficiency, a higher energy demands level at rest and testing loads, a higher concentration of energy exchange metabolites, chromaffin and stressor hormones in blood, but a lower noradrenaline and anabolic steroids level at rest and testing loads, low stress- and hypoxia resistance, a lower immunologic resistance, high incidence of disease and traumatism are typical of them.

The relaxation type of development is the best one in every respect. The CNS exciting and inhibitory processes balance, high muscle relaxation rate, excellent motion regulation and coordination, perfect reaction on moving actions, that guarantees the minimization of sport, everyday and street traumatism, are indicative of the relaxation type children. The most economical eukinetic CT prevails in them, a low economical and operation heart efficiency, the minimal energy demands level, a decreased concentration of energy exchange metabolites, chromaffin and stressor hormones in blood, but a higher noradrenaline and anabolic hormones level at rest and testing loads, a high rate of reduction processes and energy resources resynthesis, excellent physical performance and tolerance are registered. They differ in higher stress- and immunologic resistance; compared to the hypertrophic type children, they suffer from overexertion and diseases 2-3 times as seldom, and, that is of not less importance, have high mental capacity and authentically higher performance in all school subjects.

These conclusions are proved, for example, by our colleague A.Ye. Levenkova´s (1998) data about the interconnection of contractile and relaxation characteristics of muscles and central hemodynamics and circulation types factors. The relaxation type young sportsmen (1st group) differ authentically in higher heart functioning and cardiovascular system efficiency as compared to the hypertrophic type sportsmen (2nd group). They also differed essentially in different CT occurrence frequency. In the first group the hypokinetic circulation type occurred considerably more often (59,0% in women; 40,8% in men) and the hyperkinetic one - more seldom (6.8% in women; 14,8% in men); and in the second group, vice versa, the hyperkinetic circulation type was registered more often (42,5% in women; 42,6% in men) and the hypokinetic one - more seldom (17,5% in women; 15,2% in men).

The relaxation type sportsmen, in comparison with the hypertrophic type ones, possess 3-4 times greater longevity,  stand exercise and  psychological stresses much easier, are subject to overworks of different kind, traumas and diseases 8-10 times more seldom and achieve the highest sport results.

With the skeletal muscles voluntary relaxation rate (VRR) increase and the long term adaptation relaxation type formation the sport traumatism of football players decreases progressively from 100% (at the VRR less than 4,0 1/sec) to 0% (at the VRR more than 9,0 1/sec) and, respectively, their health improves in the same way. Our multiyear research testified that even in football, which is considered to be one of the most traumatic kinds of sport, it is possible almost fully to avoid injuries (excepting those appearing at rough violations of the game´s rules by the rival) due to the correct organization of the training process oriented to the CNS nervous processes balance normalization, the muscles VRR increase and the football players´ long term adaptation relaxation type formation.

Another experimental verification of these conclusions was obtained at a more profound examination of 197 schoolchildren and their case rate analysis. All the examined schoolchildren composed two groups. The first group consisted of the pupils (132 persons) referring to the first health group and having no cases in the period of the examination. The second group was formed by the pupils (65 persons) belonging to the second and third health groups and having different health deviations (infectious diseases, II-III degree tonsils´ hypertrophy, adenoid disease, frequent ARD, ENT organs´ and gastrointestinal tract´s diseases, allergic diseases, myocardosis, cardiac rhythm and capacity disturbances, etc.).

The comparative analysis of the investigation results showed that healthy pupils (1st group) authentically excelled those of the second group in a range of most important parameters. Nervous processes balance (NPB) of the CNS, VRR of muscles, the capacity of inhibitory-relaxation functional system of defence, the health prediction integral factor and the activity success in hostile environmental conditions. There are no authentic differences detected in the neuromuscular system contractile characteristics.

Thus, it is quite apparently that a low resistance and high incidence of disease in schoolchildren is to a considerable extent determined by the insufficient IRFSD capacity, the CNS inhibitory systems weakness and NPB shift to the dominance of excitation over inhibition and also a low relaxation rate of muscles and the formed, as a result of it, hypertrophic type of individual development, i.e. by the insufficiency of a range of characteristics, which were defined by us as the most important health criteria.

The article is admitted to the International Scientific Conference "Innovation technologies",  USA (New York), 19-27th December 2007г., came to the editorial office on 09.11.07.