Hydrological risk as variety and component part of ecological risk creates the danger of the disadvantage influence on organic and health of the people. The risk into the reservoirs formed the first to account of the contamination their water masses unset industrial enterprise that to account technical press on water objects.
In upper part of the Kama reservoir is located Solikamsko-Bereznikovskiy and in upper part of the Votkinsk reservoir - Permsko-Krasnokamskiy industrial complexes. They are the main source of water pollution, their contribution to technical load on basins more than 90%. For feature of the particularities hydro-chemical mode of the Kama and Votkinsk reservoirs analysed material removals reservoirs executed in 2003. The hydro chemical analysis was made in seven points:
- head range of Kamskoe reservoir (Tyulkino);
- two points near Solikamsko-Bereznikovskiy industrial complexes;
- point under Berezniki;
- point near entry in central enhanced part of water reservoir;
- point in bottom part of reservoir (Dobryanka);
- point in the dam area of Kamskoe reservoir (Kamskaya Hydroelectric station).
Value general salinity. At winter period in point Tyulkino amount ion were 150-160 mg/dm3, bottom software course (Solikamsko-Bereznikovskiy industrial complexes) it advanced to 240-480 mg/dm3, and later decreases to 320 mg/dm3. During the spring salinity falls and prepares 150-130-90-170 mg/dm3. It joint with ingress of snow water. In summer concentration was 160-560 mg/dm3. The maximum of year value salinity in this point was 560-220-140-160 mg/dm3 and wasn´t excess the most possible concentration (MPC).
Chlorides. The concentration Cl- in first point remainder 12-32 mg/dm3 in winter, 2-4 mg/dm3 in spring and 6-14 mg/dm3 in summer and autumn. The maximum value of chlorides in points near Solikamsko-Bereznikovskiy industrial complexes: 170 mg/dm3 in winter, 42 mg/dm3 in spring and 69 mg/dm3 in summer. Bottom software course contents remainder 130-110-100 mg/dm3 in winter, 27-14-29 mg/dm3 in spring, 68-31-20 mg/dm3 in summer.
Biogene elements. The concentration of biogene elements changes: ammonium ion - from 0,32 mg/dm3 in Tyulkino to 1,5 mg/dm3 under Beresniki (3 MPC) to 0,6 mg/dm3 (1,2 MPC) in dam area in winter, in spring it was 0,55 (1 MPC)-0,44-0,30 mg/dm3 and in summer - 0,24-0,22-0,21 mg/dm3; the concentration nitrate ion in all points is less than 1 mg/dm3, the contents of the nitrate nitrogen changes from 0,05-0,02-0,01-0,00 mg/dm3 in winter to 0,04-0,03-0,01-0,00 mg/dm3 in summer.
Iron (general). The Kama river has natural a high concentration of iron (1,2-1,6 mg/dm3) and in all points the Kama reservoir was found the exceeding of MPC of these components (3-7 MPC).
Copper. The contents copper was enough stable and high in all time and whole length (2-4 mcg/dm3). The exceeding of MPC of these components was found in all points (2-4 MPC).
Oxygen. The minimum of oxygen was less 6 mg/dm3 in winter and it exceedingly unsafe. In points near Solikamsko-Bereznikovskiy industrial complexes concentration was 3,8-5,2 mg/dm3, bottom software course contents remainder 6,0-5,0-4,1 mg/dm3. Floor amount of oxygen was 9,4-8,9-9,6-8,7 mg/dm3 in spring and 7,1-5,8-6,2-3,5 mg/dm3. The contents oxygen was quite low in winter and summer and excited misgiving as environmental risk.
The analysis of this material allow made next conclusion:
- Value general mineralization and the main ions in reservoir and in all time its water mode is found in rate.
- At winter period is noted excess the most possible concentration (MPC) in upper part ion ammonium in 2-3 times; on the whole length excess at most-possible concentration exists Fe (in 5-7 times), Cu (in 2-3 times), Mn (in 8-10 times), Zn (in 1,5-2 times), Pb (in 1,5-2 times), O2 (before 1,8 times), the chemical consumption of the oxygen (CCO) (in 3 times), the biochemical consumption of the oxygen (BSO) (in 1,5-2 times).
- At period of the spring in region Solikamsk-Berezniky is noted excess MPC the NH4 in 1,5 times; on the whole reservoir excess MPC the Fе in 3-5 times, Cu - 3-4 times, Mn - 5-6 once, BSO - 1,2-1,5 times, CCO - 2-3 times.
- In summer and autumn excess MPC exists on the whole reservoir on: Fе in 4-6 times, Cu - 3-4 times, Mn - 8-10 times, Zn - 1,5-2 times, BSO - 1,2-1,5 times, CCO - 3 times; in dam area of reservoir contents of the oxygen have formed 3,5 mg/dm3 at rate in 6,0 mg/dm3.
The General conclusion: the Kama reservoir in all time of the water mode as before subject to most strong technical influence and quality of its water far from requirements both for person, and for different branches facilities edges.
Monitoring observation in the area of Votkinsk reservoir is being conducted in next points now:
- two points lengthwise Perm industrial complexes;
- point below Perm (N.Muly);
- two points lengthwise Krasnokamsk industrial complexes;
- point near Ohansk;
- point near Elovo;
- point in the dam area of Votkinskoe reservoir (near Tchaikovsky).
Value general salinity. The composition of sum main ions doesn´t exceed the most possible concentration (MPC), but changes on the length of the under investigation region significantly, so quantity near Perm was 310-430 mg/dm3, below Perm - 530 mg/dm3 and decreases to 440 mg/dm3 (below Krasnokamsk) - 390 mg/dm3 (Ohansk) - 375 mg/dm3 (Tchaikovsky) in winter. The contents of these elements insignificantly in spring - 78-105-101-82-79-83-92-95 mg/dm3 (from Perm to dam area). The largest value salinity in summer was near Perm (380 mg/dm3) and decreases to 200 mg/dm3 (area Krasnokamsk-Ohansk) and 160-130 mg/dm3 (area Elovo- Tchaikovsky).
Chlorides us dominant effect man-caused factor: the contents falls from 99 mg/dm3 (near Perm and Krasnokamsk) to 61 mg/dm3 (dam area) in winter, increases from 26 mg/dm3 (above Perm) to 64 mg/dm3 (bellow Perm) and falls from 25 mg/dm3 (bellow Krasnokamsk) to 11 mg/dm3 (Tchaikovsky) in summer.
Biogene elements. The contents of ammonium ion falls from 0,91 mg/dm3 (Perm) to 0,51-0,65 mg/dm3 (Krasnokamsk), 0,31 mg/dm3 (dam area) in winter and exceed the MPC from 1,8 near Perm to 1,1 near Ohansk. The composition of this element in other period changes insignificantly: from 0,4 to 0,2 mg/dm3 on the length of the under investigation region. The contents of nitrate ion doesn´t exceed the most possible concentration. The value of the nitrate nitrogen exceeds the MPC near Perm in 1,8-2,0 times in winter and summer.
Iron (general). As in the Kama reservoir as in theVotkinsk reservoir contents of iron was high and found the exceeding of MPC in all time, so Fe falls from 0,91 mg/dm3 (9 MPC) near Perm to 0,30 mg/dm3 (3 MPC) near dam area in winter, increases from 0,43 mg/dm3 (4 MPC) near Perm to 0,72 mg/dm3 (7 MPC) near Elovo in spring and has minimum in summer (falls from 0,3 to 0,06 mg/dm3 on the length of the region). The exceeding of MPC of these components was caused naturals and industrials factors.
Copper. The concentration of copper exceeds the most possible concentration for water consumption, that caused hydrologic risk, so contents falls from 4-5 mcg/dm3 near Perm and Krasnokamsk to 2-3 mcg/dm3 in over area all time.
Oxygen. The contents of oxygen has minimum near Perm in winter (5,4 mg/dm3) and increase from 6,9 mg/dm3 (Krasnokamsk) to 9,2 mg/dm3 (Elovo) and to 7,3 mg/dm3 (dam area). During the spring concentration of these element was 8,4-8,9 mg/dm3. The contents of component exceed the most possible concentration in summer, so 5,7-6,0 mg/dm3 near Perm, 6,6-7,4 mg/dm3 in area Krasnokamsk-Ohansk and 3,6-6,6 mg/dm3 in area Elovo- Tchaikovsky. The low concentration of oxygen can be causes hydrologic risk.
Some main conclusion:
- Value general mineralization and the main ion chemical composition of water in all parts reservoir and in all phases its water mode is found in rate.
- Excess of the rates MPC on NH4 is noted in winter (in 1,1-1,8 times). In this period concentration the NO2 (in 2 times) in Perm; the Fe (in 3-9 times), the Cu (in 2-5 times), the Mn (in 12-20 times, increasing beside Perm before 40 time), Zn (in 1,5-2,0 times), phenols (in 1,5-2,0 times). The most possible concentration of oil products near Perm (in 2-9 times) and Krasnokamsk (in 2-3- times). Disadvantage situation formed on contents of the oxygen in upper part reservoir and all part in average (Ohansk). The MPC of BCO (in 1,4 times) was noted in Krasnokamsk. The value CCO on the whole reservoir has formed 2,2-3,2 times of MPC.
- At the spring the most-possible concentration contents: Fe - in 3-7 times, Cu - in 2-4 times, on Mn - in 5-8 times, CCO - in 1,8-3,2 times.
- In summer and autumn is noted excess MPC on: Fe - in 1,2-3,1 times, Cu - in 3-5 times, Mn - in 5-7 times, Zn - 1,5-2,0 times, phenols - 1,5-2,0 times, CCO - 1,8-2,2 times. Besides, excess the most possible of concentration is noted on NO3 in region Perm (in 1,8 times). It is noted excess MPC the oil products (in 1,5-3 times). The disadvantage situation on contents of the dissolved oxygen formed in Perm and in average part of reservoir. In the dam area of reservoir is noted excess MPС on the BCO (in 1,2 times).
The General conclusion - the Votkinsk reservoir in all time its water mode, as before, subject to most strong technical influence and quality of its water far from presented requirements both for person, so for different mades facility edge. Particularly, the disadvantage situation forms in region of the location Perm-Krasnokamsk industrial complex.
The called on studies have allowed to reveal the area of reservoirs the most subject to technical (first of all chemical contamination) influence; track the speaker and transformation of the contamination both in space, and at time; value the danger an hydrology risk in different phases of the water mode under investigation reservoirs; reveal the components chemical composition water, which follows to consider made risk. The got results are a central to the following development wildlife action.
The work was submitted to the International Scientific Conference «Environmental monitoring», August, 16-23, 2008, Turkey (Antalya), came to the editorial office on 16.06.2008.