The labour market is in the state of persistent change: the needs of branches of economics in the professional-personnel structure, in the level of training specialists change, the aging of the personnel participating in economical processes of the regional economy takes place. Many factors influence the regional market development, among them:
- Demographic ones - natural increase, dispersal movements, reproductive performance mode, etc.;
- Economic ones - economy structure change, consumer´s market formation, pricing policy, investment activity level, etc.;
- Social ones - population income level, social security level, social partnership system functioning, etc.;
- Managerial and engineering ones - production material and technical base development; labour, production and management organization level; organizational management of state employment agency, etc.;
- National and ethnic ones - distribution of population on their national identity, national groups balance, etc.;
- Administrative and legal ones - regulatory framework development, labour and other rights protection degree, employment, migrations, etc.
Let us consider the above-listed factors´ interaction components affecting the interaction of the labour market and the one of educational services.
The data quoted below are based on the conclusions obtained at the realization of the grant "Development and Implementation of Professional Education Service and Labour Markets Mutual Influence Monitoring Concept within Tver Region" (the program of young scientists´ research activities under the assistance of the Committee for Matters Concerning Young Persons of the Tver Region within the framework of the target program "Youth of Upper Volga Region").
In the Tver Region the general population has a tendency to decrease in spite of the positive migration gain. The rates of the work-force size reduction testify to the growth of load on the economically active population of the Tver Region. The specified situation is dramatized by the newcomers´ runoff to the Moscow Region, which is more economically reliable, than the Tver one.
In the traditional branches of the Tver Region a great shortage of specialists is registered, so the leading position is taken by the vacancies in such branches of economics as machine building, light industry, rural economy. The employers have to fill the vacancies both on account of disengaged personnel from other enterprises and attracting movers with no required professional characteristics. The theoretical evidence on the improvement of the situation by means of specialists´ target preparation introduction into practice with direct involvement of enterprises and organizations for the purpose of the future specialist´s orientation to the problems and needs of the Region don´t find proper realization in practice. It is explained by the fact that the enrollees´ interests, when entering a professional education establishment, are based on stereotypes and not on the knowledge of the labour market demands.
For the period 2000-2015 (the current and forecast showings formed under the assistance of Executive Agencies of the Russian Federation Subjects are based on the data of the Budgetary Monitoring Center of the Petrozavodsk State University) the reception of applicants will be reduced by 25,7% in the establishments of higher vocational education, by 48% - in the establishments of intermediate vocational education and by 65,4% - in the establishments of elementary vocational education.
The graduation of specialists (the ratio of the data of 2015 to those of 2000) has the following characteristics: in higher vocational education - it will grow by 54%, in intermediate vocational education - will decrease by 37%, in elementary vocational education - will decrease by 68,2%.
If to correlate the proportions of reception of specialists for 2000-2015, the proportion 0,6:0,9:1 will change into 0,9:1:0,7 (higher:intermediate:elementary vocational education). The proportion of specialists´ graduation are also shifted to the priority of higher vocational education: from 0,5:0,7:1 in 2006 to 1:0,6:0,4 in 2015 (higher:intermediate:elementary vocational education). The current trend of timing advance of the calculated demand of the labour market for higher vocational education specialists at the essential deficit of intermediate and elementary vocational education specialists testifies that the market of vocational education does not meet the regional economics requirements concerning the workforce training any more.
Today in the regional mass media the polemic on methods and forms of realization of one of the priority orientations of the regional economics development - workforce capacity, which is at the intersection "science - production", is carried out. So that the partnership "educational institution - employer" was successful, both mutual interest of the partners and adequate system of interaction are needed, that supposes the necessity of combination of the educational institutions´ and employers´ representatives´ activities for the maximal agreement and realization of all the participants´ interests of the specified process (the indicator can be the satisfaction degree of the present employer´s demand for human resource).
As a positive example of placement activity and graduates´ adaptation to the labour market we can give the example of the Tver State University (TSU) concerning the creation of student job market. In accordance with the TSU Charter the University services provide the learners with the information about the population employment situation and render employment assistance at close cooperation with the Federal State Employment Service Administration of the Tver Region, Education Department of the Tver Region, Administrations of Education of Tver and other cities and districts of the Region, other state and municipal authorities, and also organizations-employers. A job bank founded on the claims from city´s, Region´s and other areas´ employers and also from a range of recruiting agencies of Tver is created. At the disposal of the student job market there is the enterprises and organizations data bank, on the basis of which the demand behavior at the labour market is controlled, the recruitment by the orders of employers is carried out. Unfortunately, there are few examples of educational institutions´ and enterprises´ structural interaction in the Tver Region and they bear a singular, local character.
It is known that the potential of an organic whole is more than its parts´ sum potential. So that the scheme "Educational institution - employer" was successful, both mutual interest of the sides and definition of their status and functions, the use of quality monitoring data of the labour market and education service market and the degree of demand for various educational level and training directions specialists in practice. An objective analysis will allow finally defining the prospects for labour and education service markets development, tracing the ways of education service management development perfection for maximal satisfaction of education service consumers´ interests and the need of regional economics for qualified workers in terms of personnel training scales and structure optimization at the regional level. For these measures realization it is possible to offer the following recommendations:
1. The popularization of the data on the labour market structure and economy sector share in the demand formation on the labour market.
The problem of applicants´ low information awareness about the labour market development and tendencies, and also the competences, which a certain profession specialist should possess, can be solved by introducing a database or an applicant´s support center at the regional level. In the specified direction a significant factor is the admittance of the population to the given database and timely updating of the information. Not only the information about educational institutions and the specialties offered by them, but also the clarification of job descriptions and the employment possibility in the Region, the labour market saturation with representatives of the specified profession for a short-term outlook will be in the competence of the center. It is possible to add an agreement about regular labour market tendencies survey, vacancy ratings and salary scales in all educational levels with a group of regional MSM editions.
2. A wide attraction and participation of employers in the formation of educational programs, introduction of specialties corresponding to the regional market demand.
The introduction of specialties as part of one specialization contributes to the competition of educational institutions at the education service market. The given direction promotes the education service market openness, educational programs result evaluation, assistance in internships and master-classes, acquaintance with advanced experience and technologies. It is necessary to remember that the educational infrastructure should set the labour market development vectors, and not only to serve the formed infrastructure of the regional economy. I.e. not to "tune" to the labour market, but also be a source of staff changes development. For example, the organization of business incubators, innovation centers by educational institutions, for the purpose of attracting students to realize concrete economy development projects of the Tver Region. In the market economy the action of objective economic laws forms a special medium, wherein the scientific-and-technological advance is permanently generated, and the connected with it opportunities allow the competitive struggle participants to pass the rivals by on the production costs level, product quality and the speed of adjustment to the changing demand.
Thus, the education service market commercialization promoted the formation of the branch being characterized by the increasing sales volume and consumers´ capacity. The demand on the part of the population manifested itself in the education "mass scale", the tendency of "general" higher education, that provoked the imbalance of the education service and labour markets. Today the interests of the education service and labour markets lack the congruity with one another, the personnel training structure doesn´t reflect modern economic needs. The absence of a systemic approach connected with the strategic plan of the Region´s development finds its reflex in the absence of the structure of information about staff development prospects on branches, professions and educational level.
The abovementioned positions emphasize the fact that the student receiving vocational education services seeks later to occupy a particular labour market niche corresponding to his level of education for the purpose of his further labour and social advance and development. But when receiving an education service it is necessary to remember that not only personal need for quality education, but at the same time - a social need for the labour force meeting the regional economy demands, is satisfied.
The education service market doesn´t function locally and must respond to the regional economy, predetermining priority branches in the regional economy development. Getting vocational education should be a condition for effective guaranteeing of the population employment, provision of competitive positions at the labour market and in production sphere. Therefore it is important that the structure, volumes and profiles of specialists´ training were in agreement with the demands of the modern regional economy in the optimal way.