Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

MYORELAXATION IN EXTREME CONDITIONS OF LIFE ACTIVITY

Denisenko Yu.P., Vysochin Yu.V., Lukoyanov V.V., Yatsenko L.G.

Professional tendencies of the last years are connected with steady growth of loadings in practically all kinds of human professional activities. The consequence of this is often the disturbance in the work of regulatory mechanisms, that essentially decreases the level of physical capability and can result in various unfavorable vegetative shifts in health state [3, 6, 12], the problem of providing effective training of sportspersons in extreme conditions of life activity and creating functional preconditions for health saving being more and more topical. One of the ways to solve this problem is attracting modern effective and physiologically substantiated technologies with the simultaneous use of the functional state correction and complex diagnostics rational system. Such an approach allows widening the diapason of compensatory abilities of the body against the maximal volume and intensity of professional and psycho-emotional loadings. The provision of optimal adaptation to muscular loadings can appear one of the conditions for the health level maintenance and professional mastery quality increase [6, 10].

Certainly, the given problem acquires a special meaning in modern conditions of the human professional activity. It finds its reflection in a series of works connected with the idea of loading criticism both in sport and other areas of professional activity [7, 10].

Together with traditional approaches a great experience of using a whole range of non-traditional means (srednegorye, baro-chamber, hypoxic and hyper-pyretic effects, special breathing exercises, methods of biological feedback, methods of active self-adjustment and relaxation, etc.) within the system of sport training has been accumulated.

Together with that it is necessary to note that among the non-traditional means of effect on the functional state of the human body a careful attention has lately been paid to myorelaxation methods, which such features as action safety, relative easiness of effect achieving and not high financial expenditures are typical of. Relaxation, on some authors´ opinion, is considered as an alternative or compliment to the functional state correction [1, 11, 16]. That is why it is often presented as a means of prophylaxis, correction and emotional stresses elimination, Thereat, as many note [13 and others], it is the leading one in the series of methods allowing achieving necessary changes in the body´s functional state.

In physiology an active process of muscular tone and psycho-emotional tension decrease [8, 14] are meant by relaxation. At relaxation there appears a trophotropic state, the level of anxiety, psychological and physiological response to stress effects decreases. Besides, relaxation is attended by a considerable reduction of afferent and efferent impulsation. As a consequence we can speak on the fact that the introduction of relaxation methods aimed at the prophylaxis, correction and negative psycho-emotional states elimination into practice can promote adaptive capabilities of the body [6, 9, 15].

The relaxation methods have also found their application in the correction of a range of pathological states, hypertensive disease treatment, acute and chronic painful states taking down inclusive of sport activity [2, 4, 13].

The state of relaxation lies in the foundation of Meditative methods. Meditation and relaxation exercises have a wide diapason of application, most often they are used in transcendental medicine [17].

The value of muscles relaxation function in human sport and labour activities is difficult to overestimate. In a series of works [1, 6, 9 and others] a healthy influence of special exercises enhancing the function of skeletal muscles relaxation on the central nervous system, visceral organs´ and systems´ activities, rational blood circulation types formation, motion coordination, tempo, stamina, technical skills, special physical working capacity and sport results growth were proved.

The investigations proving the leading role of inhibitory systems of the central nervous system and skeletal muscles´ arbitrary relaxation rate (ARR) in the most important manifestations of life activity of the whole body: in the mechanisms of timed and long-tern adaptation to more physical, hypoxic and hyper-pyretic loadings; in the mechanisms of heart adaptation and various blood circulation types formation; in the mechanisms of muscles blood supply and muscular activity energy supply; in the mechanisms of physical overwork stability improving, prevention of risks, traumas and diseases, and also in the body´s mechanisms of defence from extreme conditions or factors and sportspersons rehabilitation [4, 5, 7, 13], are especially meaningful, in our opinion.

It should also be noted that all the most effective methods of psycho-regulation, self-adjustment and auto-training used in special psychological preparation of sportspersons and the latest health-improving technologies [8, 14, 15] are based on relaxation.

At the present time a number of various ways of sportspersons´ special physical capability (SPC) based mainly on training and competitive loadings ramp up. They are effective enough to reach the main goal, but none of them provides sportspersons´ health safety. Moreover, with the increase in volume and intensity of the loadings, which in sport have almost reached their limits, the sport traumatism and morbidity rate grow progressively. Proceeding from this, there was an evident necessity for the search of conceptually new ways for a simultaneous solution of these two the most complex and, in the opinion of many research workers, almost incompatible problems - the problem of achieving the highest levels of special physical working capacity, and the problem of sportspersons´ health maintenance and improving - associated by us into one general problem of human motor activity efficiency enhancement.

It should also be said here about the ARR highly authentic correlation relationships with all the principal components of motion coordination and sport results in various sports. The data for a significant influence of the ARR on the contractile muscles´ properties realization degree also deserve attention. The enumerated facts, from our point of view, are meaningful enough to understand that important role, which is played by myorelaxation in the SPC growth in all kinds of sport activity and sportspersons´ health maintenance.

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The work was submitted to international scientific conference «Prospects for the development of university science», Dagomys (Sochi), 20-23 September 2008, came to the editorial office on 13.08.2008.