Theoretical development and practical realization of ideas decisions and arrangements, connected with the sport humanization, are the most difficult and up-to-date task of sport science and social discourse on problems of sports.
The necessity arises not only to understand the whole range of questions, connected with development of non-humanistic tendencies in sport but also to work out practical tendencies. The greatest difficulty is that the best intensions and theory bring together with that sport humanization is opposed to intention of sport activity, connected with the aspiration of its object for distinguishing the limits of human abilities in sport.
The problem, connected with the tendencies of going out of the saturation point, arise on certain value and normative ground. The roots are in the development of technical tendencies, in the cult of power and activism, in assimilation of social and natural processes, in pre-eminence of thingish connections and in person transformation into a week link because of the complexes, created by the society. That´s why the solution of the problem of sport humanization is connected with understanding of dangerous perspectives of realization of adhocracy thinking and form of practice. The sport humanization is connected with treatment of a person as integrity whose corporal and spiritual manifestations represent indissoluble unity.
Now measurements are being taken against activity directed towards the artificial improvement of results (use of dope). New methods of training and competition process are being developed. There is an interesting conception, which is based on the creation of such conditions of training and competitions when the sportsman´s organism reaction to the training load will not go out of the saturation point. [1. P.52]
The problem is that the majority of illnesses connected with the sport activity are caused by the disparity of used training loads. Because of that overstrain and overexertion occurs, they are followed by worsening of immunity and body resistance. Russian science promotes interesting ideas about the necessity of such training organization when the result will be registered only when the sportsman perform his action within the limits of optimum work of organism. [1. P.52]
Such way of training and competition process organization demands great efforts and technical supply. However, the main obstacle is in the stereotypes of sport thinking according to which the sportsman is supposed to win in spite of the signals about inadequate effort load sent by the organism. [6. P.44]
However, even now there is a project directed to the correction and overcoming the stereotypes of this kind. The question is that there is an opposition between the principal of adhocracy according to witch the sportsman is supposed to win even if he has to overcome the saturation point of his efforts and the principal of fair play when the sportsman can not use intolerable methods to gain the victory. This principal is the basis of the sport practice developing on the ground of the Olympic ideas. It implies respect for the adversary and for yourself. Without fair play, the competition becomes rude and humiliating and it is manifested in the behavior of the sportsman. [3. p.10] The fair play characterizes the manner of action following from self-respect and including honesty, conscientiousness worthy behavior in the situations when others do not play fair; positive and cooperative respect for the partner, adversary and referee; ability to be modest after the victory and suffer a defeat in a calm way. [3. p.18] That is why the strengthening of the principal of fair play demands constant opposition to the principal of victory which is based in the idea of new sport result, record, victory over the adversary and success.
This evidence concerns that there are certain difficulties in achieving the principal of fair play. First, sport can not be absolutely bound to this principal because of its nature and the peculiarities of the competition process, which demand comparison of results and making new records. Moreover, there will always be people who will decide to make these records at any price.
The realization of the principal of fait play is the main task for the Olympic sport and sport of high results.
Today the programs directed toward the realization of this principal include:
- changing the slogan of the Olympic movement which should be connected with the humanistic values (from the point of view of sculptor Taite McKenzy the slogan should be as follows: "Speed, lightness, courage and fair play"; the president of international schools of physical education consider that it should be as follows: "better, more beautiful and more humane"; there are also other propositions.
- Broadening the practice of choosing sportsmen at the Olympic Games, who have realized the Olympic ideals and at the end of the competition award with the medal with the following inscription: "Humanism thanks to sport".
- Stirring and propagandizing the activity of international committees Play Fair and other similar organization
- Improving the judicial or referee´s regulations changing points concerning more precise classification of the breaching the code of the competitions
- Developing new competition and games directed towards humanism. A lot of propositions are promoted to solve the problem of competition process in which the change in rules would be possible ( by appointment of all the participants), they would become more democratic, humanistic, available for all the people irrespective of the age, level of preparation, state of health (disability and so on). And this approach is supposed to preserve such orientations as competition, superiority, maximum results, measuring and comparing the results. [4. p.9]
It is possible to make the point clear as a lot of specialists and sport representatives claim that professional preparing of athlete in a big-time sport achieves such a high level that there is no point to speak about amateur sport. That is why creation of legal rules of a big-time sport is the essential part of the process of humanization.
The aim result of sport activity should not come to gaining the record but assist in physical and personal development, improve person´s vital capacity and health.
Further studying of sport inevitably should be connected with more profound studying the problem of humanization and with determining the methods of it salvation. It is necessary to single out the problem of discovering and actualization of such strategies as development of sport practice in which the humanistic nature of sport would be manifested in a better way.
- Grayevskaya N.D. Sport and health // Theory and practice of physical culture. 1996. N4. P. 52.
- Gostev R.G., Guskov S.I. Transformation of Olympism ideals // Sport for all. 2001. N3, 4. P. 5.
- Sport proclamation. M.: Soviet sport, 1971. P. 10-31.
- Matveyev L.P. What does «Sport for all» mean? // Sport for all. 2000. N3. P. 9.
- Pankov V.A. Physical culture and sport in healthy life style // Theory and practice of physical culture. 2000. N6. P. 20.
- Cherkesov Yu.T. How to render sport safe. Theory and practice of physical culture. 1996. N3. P. 44. Stolyarov V.I., Barinova I.V., Kurilo S.I. Youth and Olympic idea "Fair Play". // Theory and practice of physical culture. 1994. N8. P.3-7.
- Stolyarov V.I., Barinova I.V., Kurilo S.I. Youth and Olympic idea "Fair Play". // Theory and practice of physical culture. 1994. N8. P. 6.