One of essential features of processes and tendencies under the globalization epoch is the acceleration in the rates of social dynamics maximally constricting social time causing at that more and more new problems. One of such problems - is the entropy of the established axiological system having provided stable development of the society for a long time. It is necessary to acknowledge the axiological diffusion growth, the loss of their traditional substantiality by many values at their mobility degree increasing. The axiological diffusion growth can be associated with appearance of a new type of people, in who the inversion of the internal and external takes place, that allows controlling the subconscious mind by means of, example, the advertisement mythologization or other persuaders. The combination of illusory fanciful omnipotence and more then modest real existence burdened with total dependence on commodity suppliers and, therefore, with painful feeling of insecurity - is a paradoxical feature of the post-modernizer.
At the present moment a contradictory combination of mutually exclusive personalization and depersonalization tendencies is observed. On the one hand, there is an unprecedented exaltation of humanism principles, the assertion of every person´s life worth, the liberal headship of the personality over the society, individual interests over social ones; on the other hand, - a greater unification both the personality and the culture under the pressure of all-inclusive life standartization and technocratization. The purposely harsh opposition of the "popular" and "individual" is the backbone principle of modern mass culture, where the ultimate standartization of culture products is camouflaged by the imaginary individual method of their consumption; the cultural industry´ impersonality and anonymity neighbors to the cult of "stars" and "great names". In this connection the contemporary native culture researcher F. Girenok notes, that "...the universalism crashed. According to the individualization law everyone wants to get his own portion of subjectiveness (national, linguistic, etc.)" (1).
Such contradictory, differently directed processes as the universalism crash, culture depersonalization, standartization of the human subjectiveness itself testify that together with the inversion of the internal and external the inversion of the external and meta-external (global) is gradually happening in the people´s mind, that allows manipulating the consciousness of masses to the full extent at strategic and tactical tasks exercising in politics, economics, education, ideology, etc.
The action of this mechanism is assured by the development of culture as a complex self-organized system, which is defined by a stable tendency, intensifying in the course of information selection, to gaining speed of information processing. At that, the criterion of the selection defining the cultural mutations "survival" is the privilege in the information acceleration - in the incremental rate of information transfer. Such a privilege is possessed by the "sensorium" association of a great number of individuals without regard to age, sex and nationality with the help of MM (mass media).
The action of the trialectic mechanism of mass media influence on the subjects of culture under the globalization epoch is based on two theories: first, the theory of A.S. Drikker on the information selection in the process of cultural evolution, according to which "the evolution of global system of culture represented by the aggregate of private evolutionary processes is an integral result of the selection and is characterized, first and foremost, by the seeking for the information gain rate increase" (2); second, the psychological theory of activity by A.N. Leontyev, according to which the implications for the external circumstance subject and his actions under the circumstances are frankly out of the phase with the subject´s understanding of their meaning. "Under certain conditions, - A.N. Leontyev writes, - the inconsistency of meanings and implications in an individual consciousness can take the form of real extraneity between them and even their opposition" (3).
Resting on the basic statements of these theories and considering the processes taking place in culture in the globalization epoch, one can come to the following conclusions:
a) the rearrangement of internal, external and meta-external (global) factors in order of importance is widely used by MM to influence social and individual consciousness by means of specified implications creation - knowledge, ideas, regards, wherein some or other positions, often engaged ones, are expressed;
b) Under certain conditions, when none of the positions impresses the individual, the inconsistency of meanings and values in the individual consciousness comes, which acquires the character of extraneity between them, even their opposition (for example, the constituent body "votes" with its feet, i.e. stays away from the voting stations, otherwise votes "against all", etc.);
c) the information selection of implications, which in the consciousness of the individual subjectivize into this or that meaning, is equally important for the personality as the information selection is for mass communication media; however, if the information selection is the prerogative of the information policy, the information choice depends directly on historical subjects´ (personalities´ or different level social communities´) self-consciousness culture.
Thus, the trialectic mechanism of mass media influence on the subjects of culture under the globalization epoch allows making the mechanism of changing community implications into personal meanings more precise and acutely actualizes the problem of social control over the information policy and the problem of self-consciousness culture.
Under globalization conditions the national mass media, actually, are one of means of the original national culture retaining. In connection with that it is really necessary to pay attention to some important features of mass media role from the point of view of civil and open societies functioning. The civil society needs the medium of the governmental, social organizations´, economics´, etc., activity assessment, and mass media are an important element of the civil society in many ways. As for the open society, it resists the totalitarian, strictly regulated order. The mass media in Russia exactly provide the openness and information access inclusive of the access to the official information, and, accordingly, are really an instrument of this open society.
In the era of the Internet and electronic structures and the attendant to this MM role reduction there appears a fear that the society will be open for the restricted medium only. Really, the information society development promotes new social dangers associated with the information accessibility, and at the same time it is necessary to search for the ways of their settlement, negotiation of one of the main conflicts caused by the intensifying division of the population according to the degree of involvement into the information medium.
Sure, the access to information nowadays can be exercised without mass media benefit, but the access to the social sphere, without mass media, is evidently impossible. Mass media remain an important, if not the main, instrument of public opinion shaping and development, they establish the agenda - social, public and cultural, are a very important factor of publicity.
Besides, such an interesting phenomenon is registered: the more the Internet is used in the country, the more newspapers there are there. The informatization opens new opportunities for traditional mass media: press, radio and TV use the Internet to expedite their subject matter delivery by the medium of the last. Together with that at least part of the readers stops reading newspapers using information from the Internet. Many TV fans turn to the World Wide Web, and sociologists mark some runoff of the viewers. The radio situation seems to be the most stable: the automobile number grows, and the number of listeners - together with that.
New information and communication technologies have a serious effect on the information dissemination, delivery and access. What is meant here is the globalization of mass media and demassification. These circumstances open up new vistas for the information receiving and dissemination, change the communication view essentially. There appears not only the plurality of channels, but also that of the work methods with news; several opportunities for information extracting are documented. One of them is traditional - through newspapers, radio, TV (organs of public opinion), the other one - through the Internet and databanks. In the last occurrence there appears to get not mass, but individualized information. This demassification can, from the point of view of many, destroy mass media, at any rate, fragment and atomize the use of information. And in these very conditions the future mass media problem emerges - if they will retain in the information society and how they can be transformed.
The culture globalization affects the structural elements of self-consciousness of every person individually (first of all, the mentality is meant here) and the society as a whole (public psychology, ideology). The self-consciousness culture is closely connected with the problem of mental personal and social identity, with the mechanism of best activity samples selection in various areas. The problem of culture globalization is performed in this relation as the problem of concretion of the human and humanity universal personal identities expressed in such phenomena as the information choice culture of the person and the culture of information selection in information policy.
The culture of personal information choice - is the life behavior adaptability, which supposes self-consciousness and social reality harmony, reasonable observation of general moral and legal norms as an essential condition of personal identity, the elaboration of one´s own Life picture based on the scientific worldview and humanitarian Picture of life. By means of information choice culture the personality finds real foundations for adequate moral and social self-determination, that adds a substantial quality to it, the gift to be causa sui, i.e., the cause of itself. As a consequence, a human being realizes himself as an essential cause of the given society state.
The present-day policy in the area of information and information technologies performed through the agency of the information choice culture is inseparably connected with the trialectic rearrangement of internal, external and meta-external factor of culture development in order of importance. One can emphasize the three main factors, which should determine the Russian information policy development tactics:
- The internal factor should become an adequate determination of the development subject as, first and foremost, the subject of universal information space. The matter is that in modern Russian political mentality an old scheme of the development subject determination on social and national tokens is still keeping on acting: they are class, nation, ethnos, race or political party. Such an approach does not already agree with the realia of the present-day world, wherein the becoming of the information society intended to form the human type unbounded with any social or national determinations, goes at full drive.
- The external factor of policy in the area of information should be, in our opinion, an adequate determination of national priorities of Russia. In conditions of culture globalization national priorities are to be arranged in the context of the world-wide situation taking into account, first of all, such moments as the national security of Russia and its competitive power in the world arena.
- The meta-external factor of the information policy, in our opinion, should be the idea of power redistribution at all the levels in accordance with the level of professional competency in some or other area. Now the social background role decrease is already evident in the personnel dynamics and professional mobility. Beneath our eyes, step by step, the society of meritocracy (power of the most gifted) is being formed. Step by step, in the course of social evolution the principle of advancement of the most talented people selected from all social layers to leading positions.
Thus, the information policy determined by the abovementioned factors will promote the development of information self-definition of the human, who correlates his subjective unicity to the universal information space. The last is unlimited, includes a vast number of entirely different quality cultural units and a high self-consciousness culture is required to choose from this variety what really matters for the human.
- Girenok F. Anthropological ideas in Russian world culture. M.: 1999, pp. 10-11.
- Drikker A.S. Evolution of culture: information selection. SPb., 2002, p.15.
- Leontyev A.N. Activity. Consciousness. Personality. M., 2004, p.116.