Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

SYSTEM AND ACTIVITY APPROACH TO MINERAL SUBSTANCES’ CHEMICAL PROPERTIES LEARNING

Deryabina N.E.

The paramount task of present-day education, when the amount of knowledge subjected to adoption develops rapidly, is the one of the formation of an integral system approach to the apprehension of natural and social world´s phenomena.

In connection with this a primary concern is being acquired by the academic activity projecting on the activity theory principles and system-structural approach, which allow forming a system mode of thinking, opening new cognitive opportunities of learners, growing their creative potential.

The developed by us an inorganic chemistry school course model based on the ideas of system-activity approach constructs the school subject newly - it appears as a research program of the specified subject, wherein the system-analysis method is laid; it organizes the cognitive movement in the subject and it is it that becomes a scheme of the advisory activity reflecting mentally the subject´s image in its system-structural framework. Necessary knowledge properties as the advisory basis of the formed skills are laid in it: their fullness, consistency, generalization and, the main thing - the future mode of thought.

The consideration of the studied object as a system allows treating the selection and content structuring of the school subject differently and, therefore, its expression by the education program. The content includes: integral system properties, levels of its structure, structures of various levels, intra- and interlevel relations, the variety of system options and their features.

At the system approach to the variety of particular phenomena of the studied area it is necessary to mark an invariant of the system and then to consider separate cases as individual variants. So, we suggest studying chemical properties of mineral substances in the direction "from general to particular" - towards greater differentiation, specification of chemical properties. Such an order of studying provides a successive refinement and supplement of the studied earlier, allows adding on the relations within the system, and forms the seeing of more and more "fine" relations between various substances.

According to the suggested logic the educational material of the course is divided into levels in such a way that every next one "cut out" a more and more deep layer of the subject material specifying and concretizing the previous knowledge:

1 level - Principal genetic series of metals and non-metals.

2 level - Genetic series of metals forming soluble and insoluble alkalis.

3 level -Relations between the classes of substances, which are in the principal genetic series of metals and non-metals.

4 level -Characteristics of acid-base properties of oxides and corresponding to them hydroxides.

5 level - Relations between the classes of substances from the acid, basic and amphoteric series.

6 level - Neutral, acidic and basic salts and methods of their formation.

7 level - All variants of genetic series for different chemical elements.

8 level - Relations between different genetic series of one and the same element.

We have also composed the schemes demonstrating genetic relations and the relations of transformation between the classes of substances in each level and being used in the academic activity as the schemes of advisory activity base, a system of exercises having been developed. While fulfilling these exercises relying on the represented schemes of relations between mineral substances, a complete generalized advisory base of the abilities to compose all possible genetic series of an element in various oxidation degrees; equations corresponding to changes within these series and also the equations of interaction between the compounds of various elements is formed in learners.

As the experimental approbation of the developed materials showed, due to the training organized in this very way not only the system of subject knowledge and skills is formed in learners, but also the development of intellectual abilities takes place and the system-based orientation in the studied subject is formed as well.

The work was submitted to VII international scientific conference «Strategy of scientific education», Egypt, February 22-29, 2008, came to the editorial office 13.02.2008.