The Republic Sakha (Yakutia) occupies territory in 3103, 2 thousand sq.km, that makes 18 % of all territory of the Russian Federation. Forty percent of territory is behind Polar circle, in a zone of a long-term frozen ground. In its limits three hour zones are located.
Distinctive feature of a climate - expressed anticyclone mode of weather and frequent intrusions of air masses from Arctic Ocean with very small maintenance of water steam in summer. Winter is long, cold and not snowy; on a greater part of territory temperature is varying from 40 below zero up to 50 below zero. Summer is short, droughty, and rather hot. In some days of July in the Central Yakutia the temperature reaches up to +31 - +38.
Population of Yakutia, according to census of 2002, is 949 thousand people. The indigenous population, including representatives of small nationalities, makes 50 % (45 % are Yakuts and 5 % - small in numbers people). Indigenous small in numbers people are presented with Evenks, Evens, Dolgans and Yukaghirs. The basic part of non-indigenous population is represented with Russians (41 %), and also with representatives of other people and nationalities.
Centuries-old evolution of indigenous population of the Far North has generated a lot of the adaptive morphological and functional features, allow surviving and saving health in severe conditions of an environment. However the mortality rate coefficient of the population of Yakutia constantly increases and since 1990 for 2005 he has increased in 1, 5 times (from 6, 8 up to 10, 2) whereas in Canada similar on climatic and geographic conditions this parameter in 2006 according to the data of WHO was 7, 86. For last decade (1996-2006) death rate of the population of Yakutia on the basic classes of the reasons on 100 thousand people constantly increases. Moreover the basic part of growth for this period is made by illnesses of system of blood circulation (in 1, 3 times). Only for last five -year period (2002-2006) death rate from IHD (ischemic heart disease) has increased in 1, 13 times, from a sharp heart attack of a myocardium - 1, 35, from cerebrovascular illnesses - 1, 11. It is especially necessary to emphasize fast growth of death rate from illnesses of endocrine system, frustration of a feed and a metabolism which has increased for this period in 1, 53 times, from them from diabetes - 1, 69. Thus, statistical data show influence of urbanization on health of the population in the North which major factors are infringement of the balanced feed, decrease in physical activity, and increase of psycho emotional pressure.
The article is admitted to the International Scientific Conference «Basic and applied problems of medicine and biology», UAE (Dubai), October 16-23, 2007, came to the editorial office on 09.11.07