In the contemporary society, the personality - centered direction has come to be replaced the graphically - centered direction of the education, which finds its expression in the competent approach by the comprehension by us, as the unity of the theoretical and practical preparedness of the specialist to the labor activity implementation. The competent approach realization demands the contemporary methods of teaching introduction, which formulate the occupational competence of the students, as the future specialists, arm the methods of the knowledge activization, which is often left the quite passive one, that is to say, it doesn´t find its practical application. The system approach to the students teaching is one of such methods at the engineering graphics teaching.
Under the system, they usually comprehend the elements totality, having connected between each other by the definite relations, which comes forward, as the total whole in the interactions with the environment. The contemporary presentations on the system permit to distinguish two approaches to the system comprehension:
- a system - some object image, which reflects our presentations on its arrangements, is the method of the information organization on the object and serves to the cognition targets;
- a system - the some construction, which is the tool of the challenges solution and serves to the targets of the social practice.
It is quite possible to distinguish the main sides in the system notion:
1) the system composition - a great number of its elements or the parts. It is so important to show and to give the clear presentation on each element, a division of the discipline at the engineering graphics study;
2) the system structure - the connections or relations totality between the parts. It is necessary to demonstrate the connection between the tasks, having gradually complicated their solution, as far as the engineering graphics mastering;
3) the system itself - is that the whole one, that is being formed, as a result of the parts connection by means of the connections, and it doesn´t come to the separate parts;
4) the system interaction, as the whole one with its environment, in which the system attributes are being manifested. The necessity is appeared to show the discipline connection with the real production tasks, the activity result - at the production;
5) the special - purpose system character or its connection for the purpose of the activity: the aim defines the selection principle of the parts and connections, and, therefore, the different systems will correspond to the different aims. For example, the quality of the specialists´ preparation influences upon their production activity.
Under the object systemacy, we comprehend its attribute to master all the system indications. As, in principle, every object can be considered, as some system, then the surrounding world systemacy assumes the universal character.
Concerning the thinking, the system approach acts as the organization method of the thinking process, as it demands the definite sequence carrying out of the actions. Increasingly, it is also related to the spatial thinking, without of which it is quite impossible to master the drawing disciplines.
In the process of the system approach realization, all the main operations of the spatial thinking have been started working at the drawing disciplines learning: the analysis (e.g. fragmentation into the parts); the synthesis (e.g. transition from the parts to the whole one); the comparison (e.g. juxtaposition of the whole one and the interaction exposure); the abstracting (e.g. emphasis, substantially, important from point of view of the aim); the generalization (e.g. transition from the specific objects to the system); the concretization (e.g. movement from the general system conception to the particular system). Thus, the development and activization of the thinking takes its place, as a whole.
The system approach acts as a means of the information ordering on the object, because it presents the information in a form of the system, it includes the system into the systems hierarchy as the subsystem and as the over - system. This ordering plays an important role in the learning process.
The system approach is not the end in itself: its application must give the real, but the quite perceptible effect, in every specific case.
It is necessary at the drawing disciplines learning:
● to define, clearly, the aims of every kind of activity (at solution of the tasks and the semester tasks execution);
● in accordance with the aims to define the teaching technologies, which unite the teaching methods, means, and forms (e.g. the application of the applied computer programs and the classical drawing in the drawing rooms);
● to conduct the students´ teaching with the observance of the mental development logic and the competences achievement, having developed by every student (e.g. the multilevel test tasks use).
Thus, it is necessary to solve the challenges of the structurization and the hierarchy of the studied discipline, having revealed the regularities and the interconnections with the aim of their more efficient use for the system approach realization at the drawing disciplines learning in the Technical University. The teachers´ task - is to learn the students to perceive the cause-and-effect relations, as some threads, having connected everything in the reality surrounding us, then they begin to see not simply the separate parts, but the whole one and interconnected, having formed a habit to the system thinking, they themselves are consciously and purposeful learning to form the circumstances, to define their aims and tasks.
The work was submitted to III international scientific conference «Actual problems of science and education», Cuba, March 20-30, 2009, came to the editorial office on 24.02.2009.