Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF REFORMING OF EDUCATION IN THE REGIONS OF THE EAST SIBERIA AT THE TURN OF ХХ AND ХХI CENTURIES

Lobanova O.B., Lukin V.A., Trofimuk V.N.
The communication between the processes of reforming of the public education in the East Siberia at the turn of ХХ and ХХI centuries and its social and economic background are analyzed in this article.
Now modern Russia is at the special period of its history, which characterized by the radical social and economic rebuild of all the sides of social life. In general its main idea mostly defines as a market economy and market economic relations. As the professor A.N. Falaleev considers, there is no full coincidence with the character of those reformations which occurred for example in Russia and in the other countries at the end of XIX - beginning of ХХ centuries, and it should not be if for no other reason than for the last century the world order suffered the most important changes [5, P.3]. However, it is possible to say about some aspects, which characterize the analogy of the periods of the history of Russia at the end of XIX and the beginning of ХХ centuries and the end of ХХ - beginning XXI centuries, that the development of market economy, the domination of private property, reforming of different spheres of social life, including the field of education. The period of the end of ХХ and the beginning of XXI century is also characterized by the transition to market economy. The national property was changed by the other numerous forms such as: private, federal, municipal (according to the Constitution), and that has defined the diversification of the forms of education, as at the end of XIX and the beginning of ХХ centuries as at present. There is every indication that there is an affinity between the educational problems of both periods.

At the period of the end XIX and the beginning of ХХ centuries the development of the native school is always the focus of attention of the scientists. This comes from the uniqueness of its experience unicity, bold ideas and the projects of the founders of the end of XIX - beginning of ХХ centuries.

But it is necessary to mark that in the historical and pedagogical literature the questions of the public education are mostly went into the question at large in the context of the reforms taking place in the center of the country and in the regions - the question of realization was far less touched on. This is not enough for drawing up an overall picture of the national education development. Thereby the processes in the education of the Russian Regions are of a great interest. To give the low-down on the history of Russia and the national education on the whole it is necessary to find out the regional features, which influence on the reforming process in all spheres of life in Russia at the end of XIX - beginning of ХХ centuries.

As a result of the reforms in 1864 in Russia the land reforms were carried out, and it introduced the District Council Election all over the central part of the State. These Zemstva (elective district councils in the pre-revolutionary Russia) took the lead in the development of political, economic and social condition (situation) of the citizens of Russia, created various mutual aid societies, loan offices, and opened numerous schools and so on. In the East Siberia, including the Irkutsk General-Governorship (the Irkutsk and Yenisei provinces), Yakutsk and Trans-Baikal provinces, the Tsarist Government, considering the East Siberia to be a colony, put obstacles on the way of the reforms, and explained that by the originality of social, economic and demographic factors until the beginning of ХХ century. As O.Yu. Seichenko notes in his work that the question of putting the Zemstva in force and of the social and economic conditions in the society had been taking place during all the second period of XIX - beginning ХХ centuries" [4]. The Zemstva were given a right to decide a question of the public education mainly in regard of economics. But the Zemstva were included into the process of the national education in the several directions: the organization of schools in the countryside, the determining of the optimal type of schools, according to the local needs and facilities, teacher´s training. Just the Zemstva were interested in a serious organization of schools, because they saw there a training of future specialists in different spheres of life. In this connection the assignment of the Zemstva for the development of the national education were much more than for the education in that region which had not any Zemstvo, that is the Yenisei province.

This problem was discussed by the Yenisei Council and Principal Committee on the needs of the agricultural industry in 1903. The Committee raised a question of the agriculture and also the education in the Yenisei Province. A peasant of the Minusinsk Uyezd (District) A.V.Orochko mentioned in his report a "poor training of teachers". Then the author of the article said that "the only advantage of the national education in our region is that it doesn´t cost much for the Treasury" [2, P. 266]. In 1903 the Ministry of the public education assigned 7085 rubles, the department of religious affairs - 4000 rubles, the total sum was 11085 rubles, the rest was paid by the population. 11 000 rubles made up 4% of all the profit including the natural duty. The territorial provinces spent 20% and 30% of profit for the education [2, P. 266-267]. A.V.Orochko noted there was no body in the Yenisei Province responsible for the development of the national education.

Thus this can be explained mostly by the lack of Zemstva in the East Siberia. The problem of Zemstva´s administrating in the East Siberia were lightened in the works of M.I.Altshuller called "Zemstvo in Siberia", A.A.Kornilov «A question of Zemostvo organizing in Siberia until the Imperial Rescriptum of the 3 of April in 1905. N.S.Yurtsovskiy «Zemstvo in Siberia» [3, P.20-89]. It is said in these works that the introduction of the Zemstva in the East Siberia let to improve the economy of the backward regions of the Russian Empire. Not only the economical backward of Siberia troubled the progressive political figures of Russia, but also the social and political aspect of the struggle for the implementation of the Zemstva. М.N.Yadrintsev contemporary with these events wrote: «Our first and urgent needs are the implementation of the Zemstvo, Public Court, freedom of the press and speech, individual liberty and security of property, ability to migrate and stop of banishment to Siberia». [6, P. 447] For this reason there was a backward in the sphere of the national education in the East Siberia, mainly in the Yenisei Province: "besides the special funds, sums paid for study, it is hardly to name any material resources to provide the teachers´ training... because there is no Zemstvo in Siberia, the local community is not to be expected to do this; in any case they have not enough means to satisfy daily needs" [1].

The problems discussed in the article are also urgent for the modern economic and educational climate: the structural reorganization of the control on the spheres of social life, the problems of financing of the education that is connected with the separation of powers in the field of the Federal, Regional and Municipal Authorities. The success of the educational reforming depends on the budget well-being of one or another Region. The effectiveness of problem solving of economic and cultural development in the Regions will increase by the realization of the objective government program in various spheres of life including the Education.

References

  1. The national archive of the Tomsk Region. Fund 126. Inventory 1. Act 1216. List 95.
  2. Report of A.V. Orochko about the national education// The Yenisei province (works of the local committees about needs of the agricultural industry. St. Petersburg, I.Goldberg´s typography, 1903.
  3. Collected book about the Zemstvo in Siberia: Materials of the working out the question locally and in the legislative institutions. - St. Petersburg, 1912.
  4. Seichenko O.Yu. Zemstvo in the East Siberia (1917-1920) The abstract of a thesis of the Candidate History. Irkutsk, 2001.- 21p.
  5. Falaleev A.N. To the question of specificity of the forming market relations in the Siberian Region// Education and person´s socialization in the modern society: Materials of the IV All-Russian scientific and training. - Krasnoyarsk: Russian historical society, Kazan State Pedagogical University, 2004. V.II. - 232 p. P.3-7.
  6. Yadrintsev N.M. Siberia as a colony: to the tercentenary jubilee. St. Petersburg, 1882.