Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION OF TEACHERS IN EXTREME CONDITIONS OF THE NORTH OF RUSSIA.

Petrova O.N.
Efficiency of work of the person is substantially defined by his adaptation to conditions of activity, factors of medium. For this reason the major pragmatical purposes of studying of mechanisms of adaptation are a prediction of a course of adaptation in a concrete situation and exercise of external correction of this process for its optimization.

Studying of a level of intensity of pedagogical activity has shown, that work of the teacher demands high qualification that is connected with necessity constantly to seize new knowledge, with a high degree of the responsibility for results of work. Teachers constantly meet set of disputed situations within the working day. Work of the teacher is closely connected to necessity of the constant interpersonal interaction influencing efficiency of activity.

In a situation developed for today in educational system, problems of adaptation of the teacher, criteria of an estimation of his person are allocated with insufficient attention of psychologists. Researchers in the greater degree dealt with problems of success of pedagogical work, skill, professionalism. If to take into account difficulties of climatic conditions in which teachers of regions of the Far North the theme of pedagogical adaptation becomes especially actual live. It speaks that in conditions of the North this theme was not studied earlier, and the requirement for the given researches stands is very acute.

Course of biological processes at the person it is caused by a lot of factors: character of labour activity, a degree of formation of the cogitative and speech systems determining social essence of the individual. Such aspect of research enables to penetrate into existence of adaptive mechanisms which provide to the person an equilibration of his organism with an environment. It is active process of the adaptation of an organism on overcoming injuring action of an environment.

In what good cultural and community conditions there was a person, the climate is that natural background which accompanies him not only in conditions of severe weather, but also in conditions of a house and manufacture. In adverse conditions of an environment in an organism there can be the various adaptive shifts occupying at times an intermediate position between norm and illness. Fluctuations of barometric pressure, change of humidity, the factor of illuminating intensity, - all this, undoubtedly, causes compensatory activity of many systems of the organism, connected with those reactions which are caused by public - labour activity.

Climatic features of the North inevitably cause functional fluctuations in an organism of the majority of people living in an extreme environment. There is no doubt, that reactions of an organism to influence of a cold basically are directed on the adaptation to an environment. Striking contrast of seasons, periodic repeatability of long colds in a year cycle of the nature challenge the person, will mobilize his physical and mental forces on adaptation to a rigid rhythm of life. The person of the North is as much as possible entered in this cycle. It defines phases of work and rest of the person, his strain and a relaxation. Life in extreme conditions becomes arrhythmic and fragmentary intensive. The long winter and long night alternate in the short summer and in the long afternoon. Thus, work of the Norilsk teacher is complicated with factors of medium which probably and are a handicap for successful adaptation to a professional vital way.

In conditions of Far North at teachers specific features of psychological adaptation which affect the attitude to a professional vital way, health, to as to the person, connected with increased requirements to adaptable opportunities of the person are marked.

In our research psychological adaptation is surveyed as the process reflecting the attitude to a professional vital way, to professional work, and determining a measure of success of interaction of the person with changes of conditions of medium. Professional adaptation is shown in change of an internal position concerning itself in activity and all vital way, and also change of the activity in creation of life. Thus, professional adaptation is surveyed as an integral part of adaptation to life as a whole.

During professional adaptation of the person various lines of his ontogeny which harmonization is the main task of practical psychology are bound. For today it is known, that teachers are professional group which is especially subject disadaptive to tendencies. Many scientists (M.A.Berebin, L.I.Vasserman, G.F.Zaharov, L.M.Mitin, A.A.Rean, L.N.Sobchik, etc.) Mark, that professional work of teachers is one of the most intense (in the psychological plan) kinds of social activity. Work of teachers is included into group of trades with the big presence of stresses - factors. It agrees to the data of modern researches each tenth teacher has stepped over a side of mental norm, two from three are subject a various sort to nervous breakdowns. The disadaptation covers not only sphere of health: 90 % of teachers are focused on the last life, at them is reduced креативность (Korzhov by E.JU.psycholog of adaptation of teachers to professional work. СПб.: the Baltic pedagogical academy. Institute of psychology of the person. 1996, With. 3). Especially typically for teachers infringement of the personal integrity shown first of all in behaviour of the teacher as extremely carrier of social qualities. 

At research of physiological functions at persons occupied by intense brainwork with high nervously - an emotional load, by the end of work (moreover and in extreme conditions) are marked sharp intensifying adrenergic the influences considerably raising the general level of activity of functional systems and, augmentation of cardiovascular reactions. Such dynamics of physiological functions represents intensive mobilization of power resources of an organism and is estimated by many researchers (P.K.Anokhin, G.L.Apanasenko, M.A.Grishchevsky, A.I.Kikolov, A.I.Kovaleva, V.V.pike perch, etc.) as adverse. Hypermobilization frequently results in an overstrain and an attrition regulatory mechanisms, to occurrence of prepathological and pathological conditions.

The concept of psychological adaptation as process which supports dynamic equation in the man-habitat system, allows to reach the greatest possible efficiency of behaviour of the person and his physiological maintenance, it is possible to survey as a basis of the systemic approach to research of professional work.

At the analysis of professional efficiency adaptation is estimated at a level of that microsocial medium in which the behaviour is immediately realized. In this case adaptable value of adequacy of microsocial interaction is precisely shown. At the same time, intensity of professional work is closely connected to all three aspects of psychological adaptation, demanding the realization and conservation of a psychological homeostasis, steady purposeful behaviour (actually psychological adaptation), adequate interaction with other participants of activity (social - psychological adaptation), an optimum ratio between psychological and physiological adaptable processes (psychophysiology). 

The adaptable approach to professional work provides the account of many-sided nature of professional resources. Now in the literature necessity of revealing of adaptable features which result in those or other results of activity, correlations of personal and professional development in uniform process of a becoming of the person is even more often marked. The problem of an ontogeny today leaves on the foreground of a psychological science.

Psychologic-pedagogical adaptation is understood as process of active interaction of the person of the teacher and the professional medium, directed on maintenance of their dynamic equilibrium by a principle of a homeostasis. Psychologic-pedagogical adaptation is characterized by two groups of factors:

  • Objective factors of professional adaptation is a professional - pedagogical medium. In attitude to psychologic-pedagogical adaptation is a pedagogical microenvironment (colleagues, a management, pupils, and also conditions of process of training). By professional medium besides a microenvironment it is possible to relate and internal medium of the teacher as persons and the professional. In that case psychologic-pedagogical adaptation consists in harmonization of the private world.
  • Subjective factors of psychologic-pedagogical adaptation of the teacher are general and special readiness, features of character, type of temperament, a degree of form mental processes, functional conditions, displays of abilities, a psychologic-pedagogical orientation, age, a state of health, a personal position and others.

The adaptive medium is defined as set of physical and social variables of an external world. It is frequently emphasized that adaptation is multilevel process and in this connection necessity of its complex studying. It is possible to allocate during adaptation levels high and low; levels of adaptation to макро and a microenvironment, to itself; physiological, personal, social; climatic, personal - psychological, social, a level of interpersonal dialogue, a level of adaptation to pedagogical system (to new demands); external (training to new samples and ways of behaviour) and internal (acceptance of new forms of behaviour and views), and actually adaptive and disadaptive. In the latter case it is possible to base on classification of conditions of adaptation of S.B.Semichova:

  1. Adaptation;
  2. A condition social mental And somatic intensity - threat of a disadaptation;
  3. A partial disadaptation (preillness and group of "risk");
  4. A total disadaptation.

Psychologic-pedagogical adaptation in conditions of multilevel preparation assumes:

  • high adaptable potential of teachers for exercise of an individual approach to pupils,
  • skill to be guided in diverse collectives of pupils, with different readiness, with different personal, age, social features, with different group unity,
  • skill to behave in difficult situations,
  • readiness to teach on a high level it is especial at finishing stages of training.

Pedagogical activity in conditions of multilevel preparation of pupils assumes sharp augmentation of a stream of the information, reorganization of an operating mode, necessity of an adapting to new conditions of activity, reception of great volume of knowledge and a complex of skills. These are the factors causing an overstrain of the central nervous system, development of a stress. The information stress is shaped in a situation of information overloads, the emotional stress arises under influence of alarms, conflicts to pupils and colleagues. Not a secret, that the best agent of struggle against harmful consequences of a stress - work in which the person as much as possible realizes itself as the expert. On L.V.Smolovoj´s dissertational research, some social factors accompanying teacher´s work as influence fastness to a psychological stress.

Psychologic-pedagogical adaptation has two stages: preparatory and immediate.

The preparatory stage is characterized by readiness of the teacher for activity. It proceeds during training. Immediately the stage of adaptation demands from the teacher of knowledge and the skills necessary for any principal. The course and results of adaptation depend, first of all, on a level of readiness for carried out tasks. Moreover, psychologic-pedagogical adaptation grows out psychologic-pedagogical readiness for activity which is surveyed as a special case of psychological readiness for effective activity and it is represented as professional - adaptable potential. Adaptation also is an objectivating of readiness, its display in concrete conditions.

Situations of professional work take an essential place in a vital way of the person. Traditionally and adaptations judge success, first of all, on включенности in professional work which renders appreciable influence on development of the adult person, being the important factor of efficiency of adaptable process. Professional work represents one of the brightest forms of interaction of the person with social medium. The trade of the teacher is widely wide-spread. Work of the teacher is characterized by the high responsibility and intensity. In comparison with other professional groups among teachers the risk of occurrence of neurotic frustration is highest, most the high level of "accumulation" of serious forms of neurosises here is marked. Teachers - group with risk of occurrence not only psychological, but also somatic frustration. Among them the set of symptoms of professional combustion, emotional instability, disharmony of person are wide-spread. Socially - disadaptive factors are low social security and prestige of a trade, necessity of professional interpersonal interaction in conflicting situations, information overloads, multifunctionality of social - responsible activity. In the literature a mention of social - psychological characteristics of teachers meet, as a rule, in connection with the description of their typological features, alongside with personal.

The professional disadaptation of teachers represents a serious social problem. All know, that value of work in human life is difficult for overestimating. The major are closely connected to work amounting health, well-being and life as a whole. Work should inspire the person, promoting disclosing of his personal potential. However, work can result and in occurrence of a condition of weariness at absence of the correct organization of work and the rest, the adequate attitude to and another, at the careless attitude to the organism. Last years scientists even more often address to the analysis of concept of the organizational stress connected to professional work, a load on work, distribution of duties, interaction with colleagues, roles, plaing on work. In this connection pertinently to consider also concept of adaptable norm of the health representing a functional condition of an organism. The functional overstrain can result in failure adaptive - compensatory the mechanisms directed on conservation of a homeostasis and development of certain adaptive behaviour.

It fixed, that the augmentation of the experience of work and age of teachers, ascending of a professional load (sometimes compelled on the social and economic reasons), inevitably result in accumulation of weariness, increase of alarming experiences, downstroke of mood, to vegetovascular frustration and behavioural failures. These clinical-and-psychological displays underlie frequently a psychological set of symptoms of "burning out" observable at teachers, as emotional and intellectual истощенности, the reduced serviceability to depressive experiences. Teachers are a group with risk of occurrence not only psychological, but also somatic frustration. High emotional loading the teacher frequently promotes occurrence of this set of symptoms which can be first attribute of a disadaptation.

Severe climatic conditions of Far North, ecologically unsuccessful situation, deterioration of a social situation result in essential changes not only physical, but also mental, social health of the teacher. In frame of morbidity of teachers in conditions of Far North mainly have a place cardiovascular and oncologic diseases which parameters are higher, than average on the country. The north and ecological features of region negatively influence and the genetical mechanism of the person, the number of children with a pathology of members of digestion, vision, audition, endocrine, nervous systems grows. In connection with that, specificity of teaching activity grows and the differentiated approach in pedagogical system is staticized. Large number of functional distresses is a marker of unfavorable influence of a climatic, ecological and social - genetical situation. The tendency to breaking processes of social - psychologic acclimatization shows. Therefore there is a question on a problem of a disadaptation in educational space. It is natural as to believe, that in such climatic conditions rather often "breaks" of physiological timeserving mechanisms here again various meteorological distresses should be observed should meet especially frequently. However medical practice speaks other, that in extreme conditions of the North the organism of the person has colossal ability to adapt for aboriginal climatic conditions. Its physiological mechanisms of an equilibration with an external environment are capable, apparently, are reconstructed in such a manner that « there is a new strong, functional level when they already can quite cope with demands showed to an organism ».

Thus, a condition of successful professional work begins skill to be reconstructed with the count of sharp change of socioeconomic attitudes, valuable orientations, zoetic philosophy. But adaptation to varying conditions of professional work can optimum accomplish by constant adaptation of a professional knowledge through system of improvement of professional skill of teachers. Therefore as if the teacher further will be focused only on transfer of knowledge, skills, skills acquired by him the young generation inevitably appears unprepared to new situations which cannot be provided during any learning.

The article is admitted to the International Scientific Conference " Problems of national educational standards´ international integration "; France, Great Britain, 2007, April 20-27; came to the editorial office on 19.02.07