The physical development of children can be considered as the criterion of the quality of environment, since its indices are very dynamic and depend on the complex of factors, including from the level of the pollution in urban territories. It is known that not only the strong anthropogenic actions, but also relatively weak, for example, exhaust gases of motor transport, can have a negative effect on physical development. However, this question requires refinement. Each urban territory have unique complex of unfavorable anthropogenic factors, and their negative influence on the human organism can be reflected in a change in the different indices. Are studied the indices of physical development, physical preparedness and level of the development of moving qualities and skills in 875 first-graders (470 boys and 405 girls), who are trained in 11 schools Kirov, from which 4 were located in the ecologically unfavorable city district, and 7 in the ecologically favorable region. The basic factor of pollution in ecologically unfavorable region are exhaust gases of the motor transport, traffic volume of which in the ecologically unfavorable region was higher than in the favorable. Special attention is given to gender differences in the sensitivity to the pollution of environment. Established that air pollution reduces the basic indices of the physical development of children, in particular the mass of body and the rate of its increase, but increases the rate of increase in the length of body it, i.e., contributes to asthenization. About the asthenization also testifies the fact that among the children of the unfavorable region more rarely it is encountered the macro-somatical type of build. Especially clearly reduction in the anthropometric indices is outlined in the attitude of boys, about which testifies the larger number of reliable changes in the physical development, which appear in boys in the unfavorable region and the appearance not of characteristic for the general massif indices - reduction in the circle of chest and length of body. Under the action of air pollution grow the muscular force of hand, power and vital index, diastolic AD, average AD, the addition of the vital capacity of lungs, the addition of the value of Shtange test, but the addition of the muscular force of brush is reduced. Air pollution reduces in boys rapidity, and in girls rapidity, flexibility, coordination abilities, aerobic productivity (maximum oxygen intake, [ml]/[min]/[kg]), the level of shaping of the moving skills, including of the habit of correct carriage, habits of walking and run, the fulfillment "of eight" by ball around the feet. In girls the level of the forming of the habit of the leap through the jumping rope is reduced. The deviations of the indices of physical development enumerated above can be considered the indicators of air pollution, which more frequently are manifested in boys. A decrease in the level of engine qualities under the effect of the pollution is characteristic for the girls. However, it was impossible to confirm literature data about the fact that the factors of air pollution negatively influence the harmony of development and the speed of biological ripening. In our study of differences according to the given indices it is not discovered. A question about the indicator indices requires further study, but it is even now clear that they depend on the sex of child and more frequently manifested in boys.
The work is submitted to the International environmental forum "Ecology of a big city", March 18-20, 2009, St. Petersburg. Came to the editorial office on 19.02.2009.