Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

MODERN MODEL OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN RUSSIA AND PROBLEMS OF TRAINING SPECIALISTS IN PEDAGOGICS

Dalinger V.A.

On the 13th of September 2007 the Russian Federation President Council in priority national projects realization and demographic politics took decisions, according to which the Russian Federation Ministry of Education and Science organized work on forming the modern model of educational system for the period up to 2020 year, which is aligned to solve problems in innovation development of Russian economy.

The project of this model, its basic outlines are defined at present and are being discussed by the pedagogical communal. The authors of the educational model proceeded from the fact that the modernization of the educational system is the necessary condition in the process of innovation economy formation, which is basics of dynamic economic development and social society development, and the factor of national prosperity and security.

The following principles are laid into the basis of the modern educational society:

  • openness of the educational system to external demands;
  • the priority of project methods of teaching;
  • competitive revelation and support of the leaders, who realize new approaches in practice;
  • number of addresses of the resource support toolware;
  • complexness of the taken decision.

The main distinguishing features of the new model are: the focus on the necessity to receive education during the whole course of the life (in the new model the education is considered as incomplete); the idea of flexible and incomplete educational course becomes the core for the innovations, which include all the levels and the components of the educational system; the transformation of the high education system for broad specialists (baccalaureate) into the core of the educational system; the students are granted a wide spectrum of master´s degree programmes, programmes of professional and cultural training and retraining which are renovated systematically; the alienation of strict limits in the educational system, as the renewal of competences and the receipt of academical credits can take place even at the production of goods, knowledge, and technologies; the dominant feature in the system of persistent education is the self-dependent access of students to the educational resources and technologies; the student motivation, interest, inclination are considered as dominant and more expensive resulting resource in the new educational model; the orientation of the new model toward the true openness of the educational system, toward the formation of its network interaction with other institutions.

Purpose guiding lines in the development of education, which are defined in the new educational model, are presented by stages: by the 2012 year, by the 2016 year, by the 2020 year. These guiding lines propose fundamental staff changes, essential increase of competitiveness of a qualified teacher, the specialists in the industrial training, high school tutors and lectures. Traditionally a teacher (is a monopolist in giving and interpreting necessary knowledge) disappears from the stage. A new image of educational specialist should composed: an educational specialist should be an researcher, an educator, an adviser, a project leader, a tutor, a facilitator, etc.

All above mentioned calls forth the urgency of the changes in the educational system of high professional education, including pedagogical into the new multilevel system, which essentially differs from the monolevel in content and the organizational structure.

The decision of the transfer to bimodal training of highly qualified professional specialists, including specialists in pedagogics, was taken in 2007 year. In this connection since 2009 year the educational process in high schools will be organized with the use of the credit system, and this organization will take place in nonlinear scheme, the characteristics of which are the following: providing the system of high education with freedom in formation basic educational programmes; the institution of a new more complete planning system and educational process organization; the increase of the self-dependent student work; the broadening of the student possibilities in choosing the course or specialty of training, personal participation of every student in the formation of his individual curriculum; involving academic consultants into the process of education , who assist students in choosing educational trajectory, especially in the choice of educational discipline, etc.

The above mentioned conditions make of current importance the problem of acquirement by high school tutors and lecturer of professional skill - the organization of the educational and cognitive student activities, appropriate to the demands of the credit system.

Three forms of curriculum are planned to be used in the process of teaching each specialty:

  • basic - stable curriculum - a general course (specialty), are used to determine the content and labour-intensiveness of each student;
  • individual curriculum - which define the individual educational trajectory of students;
  • educational work plans - which are used to form annual schedule of the educational process and the labour-intensiveness calculation of tutors´ and lectures´ work.

The basic curriculum will include three groups of disciplines, according to the level of obligation and the succession of learning the educational content: "A" - a group of disciplines that are compulsory for learning and have a strict order in time; "B" - a group of disciplines, that are compulsory in learning, but there is no strict order of learning them; "C" - the disciplines that a student learns at his discretion.

The noted fact intensifies the problem of projection and realization of the principal, substantial and processual components of the methodical system of student education by the departments of the high school in the context of the Bologna declaration demands. The deans will have to unify the curriculums of contiguous specialties in the context of nonlinear system of organization of the educational process.

There is some hope that a teacher trained in the context of the new educational model, will be able to form key educational competences: notional, cultural, cognitive, informational, communicative, social and working, personal (self-perfection).

The work is submitted to Scientific Conference "The Problems of International Integration of Educational Standards", England (London) - France (Paris), April 20-28, 2009. Came to the Editor´s Office on 30.01.2009.