Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

RESEARCH OF NATIONAL EDUCATION PROBLEMS IN THE YENISEI PROVINCE IN THE BEGINNING OF XX CENTURY AND THEIR ADAPTIBILITY FOR THE PRESENT STAGE OF RUSSIAN REGIONS’ DEVELOPMENT

Lobanova O.B., Lukin V.A., Trofimuk V.N.
In the clause the system of parameters describing a social status of national teachers of the Yenisei province in the beginning XX century is considered: the living wage, prosperity, security habitation, dwelling and occupied places accomplishment level.

Estimating the social status B.V. Rakitsky allocates the system of parameters, where there is a cost index of life ( living wage,  prosperity, etc.), security habitation, dwelling and occupied places accomplishment level, etc. [5, p.21]

When speaking about social and economic problems of a region, first of all the problems in the sphere of education are paid attention to.

The Yenisei province was one of the greatest territorial parts of Russia and one of the most removed ones from the center that presented considerable difficulties for the province´s inhabitants and for carrying out in practice state reforms in the end of XIX - beginning of XX centuries. The enormous spaces of Siberia with its imperfection of a transport network were a noticeable barrier on the way of involving the region into all-Russian economic relations.

The communication between settlements inside the districts was performed in general by country roads, which condition was unsatisfactory, despite of considerable means appropriated to their maintenance. Up to the end of XIX century the only one transport artery leading to the European part of the country, was the Siberian Highway (Sibirsky Trakt). Inside the region the passage between Minusinsk and Achinsk was the busiest one. The grain trade from Minusinsk district to northern volosts of Achinsk and Yenisei districts and also to Tomsk province was carried out there. [3, pp.162-163]

The presented below table 1 shows the price ratios for the basic food stuffs in the Yenisei province.

Table 1.  Prices for the articles of primary necessity established for the Yenisei province cities, 1915 [1; 2]

Articles

City

Krasnoyarsk

Achinsk

Minusinsk

Yeniseisk

Kansk

Rye bread,

baked, a pound

2.5k

-

-

-

3 k

Hemp oil,

a pound

16 k

16 k

12 k

16 k

18 k

Butter

37 k

-

-

-

35 k

Eggs,

a hundred

1.55 rub

1.60 rub

1.10 rub

1.80 rub

1.30 rub

Stearin candles,

a pound

40 k

40 к

40 к

42 к

40 к

Matches,

a box

2 к

2 к

2 к

2 к

2 к

Kerosene,

a pound

7.5 к

7 к

8.5 к

8 5 к

8 к

Beef,

a pound

10-13 к

11-13 к

9-11 к

 

11-13 к

Veal,

a pound

12-15 к

13-15 к

10-12 к

12-15 к

11-12 к

Lamb meat,

a pound

9-11 к

9-11 к

8-9 к

 

8-9 к

Pork,

a pound

10-12 к

12-13 к

9-10

 

10-11к

Loaf sugar,

a pound

21 к

21 к

21.5 к

22 к

22 к

White sugar,

a pond

18 к

18 к

19 к

19 к

19 к

Analyzing the given tables and comparing them with the salary of teachers in the Yenisei province - 360 rubles a year, we shall note a hard financial situation of national education workers. For each 5 years of work the basic salary of a teacher carried an extra charge of 60 rubles. Thus, a teacher having worked 20 years, had a salary of 600 rubles. An increase of 120 rubles for the work in severe conditions of the Yenisei province was assumed also. Thus, more or less worthy wage could be only given to a teacher who had worked not less than 15 years. But young teachers and those having greater families had the salary that "did not make any satisfaction considering all the modesty and skill to live of national teachers ". From pages of newspapers and magazines the Yenisei province teachers addressed to the government with the request "to pay attention to earnings of national teachers especially in Siberia as he has to struggle for life existence even more here" [6, p.45]. Under these circumstances in the sphere of National Education, in the beginning of XX century the Yenisei province teachers were not sure of tomorrow, did not see any prospect to improve their life neither in the economic nor in social spheres and left work at school. According to the Siberian School Census, 1911,  the teachers having served less than 5 years made up 57 % from the general number of the teachers; from 5 till 9 years - 26 %; more than 9 years - 17 % [6, p.46]. The young men, being educated and feeling forces for any beginning, having got no satisfaction in a teacher´s field, tried to find another job which would allow creating better conditions for life.

The high level of dwelling accomplishment and security habitation of the Yenisei province teachers in the beginning of XX century is not worth speaking about, either. The apartments which were given to the teachers, especially in countryside, were far from ideal ones: old construction and demanding repair houses not adapted for life economically, the temperature in the apartments in winter was low. The teachers´ habitation problem was discussed at Pedagogical Congresses and in press. In "Siberian school (Sibirskaya Shkola)" magazine, 1916, some clauses where the housing question was mentioned and the teachers described their life were published: "water in the samovar freezes...It is necessary to go to bed in clothes, ... the oven burns badly, because the fire wood brought from a bog is damp" [7, p.76]

On the basis of the above-stated, we can draw the conclusion, that the parameters of the social status of the Yenisei province teachers in the beginning of XX century left much to be desired. The problems mentioned in the clause are urgent for the modern condition of economy and education as well. Now the financial situation problems of a teacher are far from being satisfactory, too. As well as in the beginning of XX century the solution of problems of payments for the National Education workers, increase of their social status, and the establishment of a worthy living standard for them is required.

The alignment of regions´ development conditions was and remains in the center of attraction as the precondition of market relations´ and social infrastructure reforming. In conditions of market economy the system of the state guarantees and indemnifications for northerners requires a transformation on the basis of the differentiated approach to the workers employed in the budgetary sphere and in non-budgetary sector of economy. The basic state guarantees and indemnifications for the working and living in northern regions are: regional wage factors and rated increase [5, p.663]

The investigated facts were the objective base for the solution of problems of National Education on the boundary of XX century that remains urgent also during the present period of the development of Russia. It proves the necessity of studying and using rational ideas of that time for the solution of National Education reforming problems of the present.

The Literature:

  1. The Yenisei Provincial News. - 1915, №44.
  2. The Yenisei Provincial News. - 1915, №50.
  3. Krasnoyarie: Five Centuries of History. Schoolbook on Area Study. Part 1. - Krasnoyarsk: group of companies "Platina", 2005, p.240.
  4. Lysenko Y. F. Social and Economical Geography of Krasnoyarsk Area: Schoolbook to Help Teachers, Students and Pupils. Krasnoyarsk: KSPU Publishing House, 1997, p. 224.
  5. Russian North: Social Development Problems: Schoolbook/under the editorship of Volgin N.A., Alexeyev Y.P. - M.: Publishing and Trading Corporation "Dashkov & Ko ", 2004, p. 896.
  6. Siberian School. - 1916, №5, pp. 45-55.
  7. Siberian School. - 1916, №3, pp. 74-78