Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

MORPHOFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OF LONG-TERM ADAPTATION AND INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT IN SPORTSMEN

Vysochin Yu.V., Denisenko Yu.P.

Various types of long-term adaptation or individual development are formed at a more or less prolonged effect of some or other adaptogenic factors on the body. In the people with low capacity of inhibitory-relaxation functional system of defence from extreme conditions (IRFSD) irrespective of age the adaptation takes course due to muscle bulk and strength gaining against the skeletal muscles´ relaxation low rate, i.e. a hypertrophic type of individual development is formed. At the IRFSD medium capacity a passage type is formed, and at the IRFSD high capacity a relaxation type of individual development is formed. A high relaxation rate and medium muscle strength indexes are indicative of this type (Vysochin Yu.V., 1988; Denisenko Yu.P., Vysochin Yu.V., 2002).

Considerable morphofunctional alterations at long-term adaptation touch not only the neuromuscular, but all the other systems of the body as well. In the hypertrophic type people the hyperexcitability and the CNC inhibitory systems´ low activity are registered, the hyperkinetic (uneconomical) blood circulation type (CT) and highly disharmonious constitutional type prevail. The cardiac performance low economical efficiency, a higher level of energy consumption at rest and at testing loads, an increased concentration of energy exchange metabolites, adrenalin and stressor hormones, but a lower level of noradrenalin and anabolic steroids at rest and loads in blood, low stress and anoxia tolerance, a reduced immunological resistance, high incidence of disease and traumatism are indicative for them.

The relaxation type of individual development is the most profitable in all intents. For relaxation type persons the CNC exciting and inhibitory processes´ balance, high rate of muscles´ relaxation, excellent regulation and movement coordination, perfect reaction to moving objects, that guarantees the sport, everyday and street traumatism minimization, are specific. The most economical - eukinetic circulation type prevails in them, the cardiac performance high economical efficiency, the minimal level of energy consumption, a decreased concentration of energy exchange metabolites in blood, a high rate of reparative processes and resynthesis of energy resources, excellent physical performance and stamina prevail in them. They excel with an increased stress tolerance, twice or trice as seldom they are subject to overwork and diseases, as compared to the hypertrophic type persons. Relaxation type sportsmen, as contrasted with hypertrophic type ones, enjoy considerably greater sport longevity, stand physical and psychological stresses far easier, are subject to various overworks, traumas and diseases 8-10 times as seldom and achieve the highest sport results (Vysochin Yu.V., Lukoyanov V.V., 1987; Denisenko Yu.P., 2007).

With the increase of skeletal muscles´ voluntary relaxation rate (VRR) and the formation of relaxation type of long-term adaptation the sport traumatism decreases progressively from 95-100% (at the VRR less than 4,01/sec) to 5-0% (at the VRR more than 9,01/sec) and, therefore, their health improves the same progressively. Our multiyear investigations testified that even in the most traumatic kinds of sport, one can almost fully make away with injuries (except for the traumas emerging at gross violation of game rules by the rival) due to the correct organization of the work-out session aimed at the CNC nervous processes´ balance normalization, muscles´ VRR increase and long-term relaxation type formation.

References:

  1. Vysochin Yu.V. Physiological mechanisms of defence, stability and physical performance improving in extreme conditions of sport and professional activity: thesis work of Dr. Sc. (Medicine) - L.: VMA named after S. Kirov, 1988 - p. 550.
  2. Vysochin Yu.V., Denisenko Yu.P. Modern ideas of physiological mechanisms of urgent adaptation of sportsmen´s body to muscle loading actions // Theory and practice of physical culture - 2002 - N7 - pp. 2-6.
  3. Vysochin Yu.V., Lukoyanov V.V. Active muscle relaxation and self-regulation in sport: Monograph - SPb.: SAPC named after P.F. Lesgaft, 1997 - p. 85.
  4. Denisenko Yu.P. Muscle relaxation in the system of football players´ training: Synopsis of a thesis of Dr. Sc. (Biology) - M., 2007 - p. 48.

The work was submitted to international scientific conference «Priorities for Science, Technology and Innovation», Egypt (Sharm el-Sheikh), November, 20-27, 2008. Came to the editorial office оn 17.10.2008.