Management, in the modern sense, is a professional activity in managing people aimed at achieving goals and maximizing profits. Since its inception, management of the organization had to solve many problems and tasks, which were explained by various reasons. But with the advent of problems, their solutions appeared.
First of all, it should be noted that the modern management infrastructure at enterprises in various fields of activity is a combination of many complex organizational structures for management. Their ability to withstand challenges and lead a competitive strategy is ensured by the professionalism of managers. The specifics and problems of modern management can be resolved through the use of a set of strategies and tactics, as well as technologies that increase the level of managerial culture and gain experience to create national schools of Russian management [2, p. 52].
The specifics of managerial activity in Russia allows us to single out approaches in understanding Russian management as a tool for regulating business. The first approach is based on a complete denial of the possibility and necessity of management in Russia, since Western models of governance in our country will not take root. The second approach is based on the idea of using the developed foreign management models, since they can be used in finished form without exaggerating the importance of Russian specifics.
The contradiction of these two approaches does not allow the creation of leading scientific management schools that have global authority. Their absence is one of the main problems of the development of management as an instrument of business regulation [5, p. 156].
In our opinion, the next key problem in the development of management as a tool for regulating business should be recognized as a clear lack of attention to international developments. Over the past decades, management theory in Russia has been largely “tied” to “classical” ideas that emerged by the late 1980s and early 1990s and summarized in world-famous works. Similar works of domestic scientists, the textbooks prepared by them are an exposition of these “classical” ideas and their conceptual processing. However, the achievements of foreign scientists, as a result of which these ideas themselves are already undergoing changes, remain outside the scope of attention. In particular, in recent years, ideas about leadership, organizational crises, managerial risks, corporate communication, etc. have been significantly supplemented and modified. [1, p. 227].
In fact, the theory of management as an instrument of business regulation in the international sense has already quite far “gone” from the “classical” ideas of the last century. It is not a question of overthrowing these ideas, but of a manifold increase in knowledge in comparison with them. However, domestic experts for the most part do not pay attention to all these new achievements of world science.
Another key problem in the development of management as a tool for regulating business should be recognized as not sufficiently “deep” development of ideas that make up the theory of management in relation to individual sectors of the economy. The number of relevant publications is large, but they contain, as a rule, a brief summary of the above-mentioned “classical” ideas, as well as a description of the specifics of the activities of organizations of a certain profile. However, this is clearly not enough [4, p. 190].
Of much greater interest are, firstly, a detailed (including on a quantitative basis) study of the experience of managing these organizations, and, secondly, the interpretation of the corresponding distinguishing features in the context of the latest general theoretical achievements. The origins of this problem should be seen, first of all, in a strong “attachment” to the aforementioned “classical” ideas.
The solution to this problem may be associated with increased interest in the development of theoretical ideas about management in specific industries. An example is a conceptual analysis, the essence of which is as follows. The basis is taken some general theoretical representation. Further, specific features that relate to this view are determined for organizations of a specific profile. Based on this, a conclusion is drawn about the importance of this view for this industry, the direction of its action, its limitations, etc. are indicated. In particular, the value of individual, most significant developments of the world’s leading experts for managing organizations in this industry is formulated [6, p. 60].
The next problem in the development of management as a tool for regulating business can be considered the lack of opportunities to use the activities of external experts when it is really necessary. An expert attracted from outside could solve a large number of problems, because he gets paid for it and from the outside you can see a lot more problems than from the inside of the enterprise. In the context of Russian reality, many leaders do not see the need to attract outside experts in order to solve certain problems. In our opinion, this is due to fears or distrust of the competence of a consultant or expert. Many managers believe that not all experts can equally effectively solve a particular problem, or are simply afraid of revealing trade secrets. On the other hand, in some situations, experts could solve most of the current problems of the enterprise [5, p. 158].
Also at the present stage, we can note the weaknesses of management as a tool for regulating business, including:
– lack of an independent assessment of the activities of Russian managers;
– low competence of managers and their lack of necessary personal qualities;
– inability to apply foreign practice taking into account the Russian mentality;
– Inability to rationally use financial, technical, human, information resources;
Poorly developed marketing;
– weak intrinsic motivation;
– Lack of a basis for professional autonomy;
– manager focuses attention and efforts on making short-term profit, which can cause damage not only to the organization, but also to employees, society as a whole.
At the moment, another especially important problem of modern management as an instrument of business regulation is the quality of managerial personnel. In the last few years, a specialty “management” has appeared in many higher educational institutions, but the problem still remains relevant. Since, in order to increase the level of competence aimed at the ability to bring economic benefits to the organization, it is necessary to involve professional managers who have management experience in the actual conditions of a market economy [7, p. 207].
The next problem is the lack of effective interaction between the owner of the companies and the top manager. Another problem of management as a tool for regulating business is the indifference and neglect of problems within the team by managers. There are no training and continuing education programs for employees in low positions, and often there are no adaptation systems for new employees whose task is to get to know the teams, the principles of work in the company and its values. Because of this, problems arise in working with clients when a new employee cannot answer basic questions, does not have information about the enterprise, product, rules and regulations adopted at this enterprise.
Having studied the weaknesses of Russian modern management, we proposed the following measures to improve it:
1. Optimization of the organizational structure, a strict definition of the authority and responsibility of management, a clear statement of the goals of the organization.
2. Determining the strategic development of the organization based on the results of marketing research.
3. Creating a strong organizational culture of the company, creating a favorable social and psychological climate in the team.
4. Improving communications vertically and horizontally by improving the organization’s information system and communication channels.
5. The use of modern methods of task planning (intelligence card) and decision making, management procedures, incentive systems.
6. Implementation of regular professional development of employees – training, staff rotation, promotion of creativity and initiative.
7. Paying due attention to the selection of personnel using psychological, professional tests in order to avoid staff turnover.
8. The use of innovation in order to rationalize the use of resources and improve the quality of manufactured goods or services.
9. Focusing attention and strength on the growth of the organization.
10. The fixed frequency of determining dynamic indicators.
Consideration of the actual problems of management as a tool for business regulation allows us to formulate the following solutions:
1. In order to form a new generation of managers who will be versatile in their knowledge of the specialty, it is necessary, with the help of state support, on the basis of higher education institutions, to introduce “managerial schools” that are aimed at providing students with high-quality practical knowledge.
2. In order to stimulate the training and advanced training of managers, it is necessary to introduce a single register with a rating system and cash incentives.
3. The creation of a federal research center, the main goal of which will be the development of a domestic scientific school of management.
Thus, the main problems of modern management in Russia can be attributed to: the problem of the quality of managerial personnel, the problem of nepotism, the decrease in the requirements for the professional level of specialists, the decrease in the qualification level of middle and senior managers. If the modern generation of young specialists in the field of management can solve these problems, then in the long run this will entail changes that will be aimed at the possibility of bringing economic benefits to society and the country as a whole.
The solution of pressing management problems depends on whether Russia can create a strong and functional domestic management, as this is an objective necessity [3, p. 123].
Despite many problems in the development of management as a tool for regulating business, some of which are discussed in this article, it is worth noting that with a professional and balanced approach, you can always find compromises, find the optimal solution in the situation, avoid many problems in management, and most importantly – increase quality and effectiveness of management in general.