Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

MATERIALS TO STUDY SPECIES COMPOSITION, LIFE FORMS AND FOOD SPECIALIZATION OF HEMIPTERA (HEMIPTERA) SYRDARYA-TURKESTAN REGIONAL NATURE PARK

Makhambet G.K. 1 Kurbankul N.N. 1 Bozshatayeva G.T. 1 Ospanova G.S. 1 Turabaeva G.K. 1
1 M. Auezov South Kazakhstan State University
Targeted faunal studies of Heteroptera in the Turkestan region were initiated by Esenbekova P. A. and employees of the SRPP “Syrdarya-Turkestan”, but the species composition, the economic value of bed bugs in southern Kazakhstan has not been studied enough, which causes the need for regional ecological and faunal studies, semi-Coleoptera, in particular the Turkestan region, is a unique region for ecological and entomological studies, as it is characterized by a wide variety of invertebrates. The development of cadastre and monitoring of entomocomplexes of specially protected natural areas – the regional natural Park Syrdarya-Turkestan-is relevant. The importance of studying the entomofauna of protected natural areas has been repeatedly emphasized in the national scientific press (Temreshev I.I, Kazenas V.L., Childebaev M.K., Isenova G.D., Kozhabaeva G. E., 2015, etc.). The preliminary studies conducted by the authors in the species composition of semi-Coleoptera, as well as in their life forms and food specialization showed the following results: as a result of research, 65 species of bedbugs belonging to 17 families were identified; the largest number of species are Pentatomidae (21.5?%), Lygaeidae (13.8?%), Miridae (12.3?%), Rhopalidae and Coreidae (9.2?% each). In such families as Naucoridae, Pleidae, Gerridae, Stenocephalidae revealed one species; life forms dominated by a group of chortobionts and the number of species and the number of presents in her collections; trophic groups of semi-Coleoptera are represented as follows: phytophages (in General, more than 76.9?% of the known number of species), zoophages (18.4?%), species with mixed type of nutrition (4.7?%).
hemiptera
species composition
food specialty
vital form
1. Essenbekova P.A. Hemiptera (Heteroptera) Of Kazakhstan. – Almaty: Nur-Print, 2013. – 268 p.
2. Essenbekova P.A. Baimuratov B.A., Telems E.H., NARS M.A., Tazhieva A., Tre N. Syrdarya – Turkestan parks Syrdarya, Arys, BoraldayShymkent, 2017. B-107.
3. Esenbekova P.A., Toleman E.H., NARS M.A., Tazhieva A. Economic composition of the fauna of beetles (Heteroptera) “Syrdarya-Turkestan State Regional Natural Park”. Almaty. Science and life of Kazakhstan. International popular science journal, № 1/2 (55), 2018. p. 47-52.
4. Temishev I., Kazenas V.L., Childebaev M.K., Issenova G.D., G. Kozhabayev E. a Preliminary list of indicator species insects of southern Kazakhstan. Almaty, Chickpeas-Print, 2015, 11-163 р.
5. Kulik S.A. Methods of collection and study of semi-winged insects (Heteroptera) living on trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants of Siberia //Insects of Eastern Siberia and the Far East. Irkutsk, 1978. pp. 7-19.
6. Kerzhner I.M., Yachevskaya T.L. Squad Heteroptera (Hemiptera) Hemiptera // keys to insects of the European part of the USSR. Science publishing house. M.-L., 1964. Vol. 1. P. 655-843.
7. Asanova R.I., Iskakov B.V. Harmful and useful half-winged (Heteroptera) of Kazakhstan. Determinant. Alma-ATA: Kainar, 1977. 7 – 204 p.
8. Casualty K.K. Field study of terrestrial invertebrates // VSH. M.,1971. 25-124 р.
9. Dugaeva I.V. Ecological-faunistic characteristics of chortobiontHemiptera (Heteroptera) of forest-steppe and steppe of the Volga region (on the example of Samara region): author. Biol. sciences’. Samara, 2000, – 21 p. 5.
10. Kulik S.A. Methods of collection and study of semi-winged insects (Heteroptera) living on trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants of Siberia //Insects of Eastern Siberia and the Far East. Irkutsk, 1978. pp. 7-19.

The basis of the fauna of semi-winged Kazakhstan are terrestrial herbivorous species. They feed on the juices of plants, mainly their generative organs and seeds. Some of the ground bugs, as well as most of the water bugs and all the water meters are predators, they suck out various insects, their larvae and eggs, mites, etc.

Among the many plant-eating bugs pests of agriculture and forestry. Some herbivorous bugs are carriers of viral diseases of plants. Some bugs that live in the water are harmful to fisheries, sucking caviar and fish fry.

Many predatory bedbugs are useful because they destroy aphids, ticks, caterpillars, larvae of beetles harmful to agriculture and forestry, etc.

Bedbugs are common all over the world, there are about 30 thousand species, United in 50 families.

There are 35 families, more than 1200 species in Kazakhstan. Among the bedbugs there are many large and brightly colored species; most species have a close relationship with certain biotopes, many lead an open lifestyle and are sensitive to the state of the environment.

All this makes many bedbugs suitable for use as indicator species in monitoring and assessing the status of various aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. There are especially many such species in the families Pentatomidae, Lygaeidae, Coreidae, Reduviidae and Scutelleridae. Since bed bugs can cause significant harm to agricultural plants, it is necessary to constantly monitor the status of populations of the most harmful species. [1]

The creation of the “Syrdarya – Turkestan regional natural Park” is associated with such an important task as the preservation of biodiversity of living organisms within it.

One of the stages in solving this problem is the inventory of flora and fauna of the natural Park, which will create a basis for monitoring studies.

For the SyrDarya – Turkestan regional natural Park consisting of three branches, a more detailed study of the entomofauna is relevant.

P.A. Essenbekova (Institute of Zoology of KN MES RK) and employees of “Syrdarya-Turkestan grpp” conducted a great work on the study of fauna of semi-winged (Heteroptera) “Syrdarya-Turkestan State Regional natural Park”.

The authors obtained information on the biology and ecology of 25 species of bedbugs belonging to 8 families of the order of half-winged in the Arys region of South Kazakhstan region (now Turkestan region), among them species diversity stand out. Pentatomidae (7 species – 28 %), Lygaeidae (5 species – 20 %), Rhopalidae (4 species – 16 %), Nabidae (3 species – 12 %), in other families 1-2 species (4-8 %) are known.

On the food relations among bugs are the predators, phytophagous bugs, and species with a mixed diet, it was Topalov – 4 types, soovitatav – 2 species, the other species belonged to the phytophagous. [2]

Herbivorous species feed on the juices of plants, mainly their generative organs and seeds. Predators suck out various insects, their larvae and eggs, ticks. The fauna of Hemiptera of the mountain Boraldai was mainly terrestrial species – 29 (87,8 %), from marked water – 4 species (12.2 percent).

The family Pentatomidae – 9 species (27.3 %), Rhopalidae – 4 species (12.1 %) were distinguished by species diversity, and the remaining families were represented by 1-3 species [3.4].Herbivorous species feed on the juices of plants, mainly their generative organs and seeds. Predators suck out various insects, their larvae and eggs, ticks. The fauna of Hemiptera of the mountain Boraldai was mainly terrestrial species – 29 (87,8 %), from marked water – 4 species (12.2 percent).

The family Pentatomidae – 9 species (27.3 %), Rhopalidae – 4 species (12.1 %) were distinguished by species diversity, and the remaining families were represented by 1-3 species. [3,4]

Materials and research methods

The material served as gathering of authors, 2018, the Survey was conducted by the routing method. Collection and study of insects were carried out by conventional methods. [5, 6]

From grassy plants, bushes and branches of trees bedbugs gathered net; species living on the surface of the soil, at the roots of plants, in the forest litter, under the bark of trees and various shelters, caught with an exhauster or tweezers; water bugs collected water net.

Monographs by I.M. Kerzhner (1981), P.A. Esenbekova (2013) were used to determine the species composition of the semi-Coleoptera.

The types of stenobiont, eligibilty and eurybiont depending on the latitude of adaptation to specific environmental conditions; phytophagous, zoophagy and soovitage the nature of the trophic relations; monophagy, oligophagy and polyphages on features of food specialization (Kulik, 1973; Asanova, Iskakov, 1977, Kerzhner, 1981; Stop, 1990; Balakhonov, 1998; Dugaev, 2000; these intellectual, 2013). [7,8,9]

Results of the research and discussion

In 2018, the study of semi-winged “Syrdarya – Turkestan regional natural Park” was continued by the authors, the results of partial processing fees included in the preliminary list of species, but most of the materials are in the process of processing.

The table presents the preliminary taxonomic composition of the families of semi-winged GRPP “Syrdarya-Turkestan”, their life forms and food specialization, which is based on the analysis of these literary sources, the study of the collection of the scientific Department of GRPP and the primary processing of the authors ‘ fees.

Below is a description of the main representatives of the most numerous families of semi-winged GRPP “Syrdaria-Turkestan”.

Family Pentatomidae –real shchitnik. A representative of the Carpocoris fuscispinus family (Boheman, 1851) is found in grassy meadows. Politicial herbaceous plants (Verbascum, Achillea, Artemisia, Senecio, Carduus, Cirsium, Centaurea, Jurinea, Crepis, Salvia, Lepidium, Rumex, Malva, Poa, Festuca, Nuosavi on other herbaceous plants.

The family Miridae – horseflies. Representatives of the family: Stenodema calcarata (Fallen, 1807). The species is mesophilous. Occurs on floodplain meadows, on cereals and sedge plants; potential pest of cereals; adults and Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze, 1778) overwinter – on meadow complex-colored, marsh and leguminous plants. Politicial with a large preference for legumes.

The lygaeidae family are landers. The representatives of semesta – Bianchiella sarmatica Kiritshenko, 1926. Xerophile. Inhabits semi-desert, sandy steppe, on the Sands, among turfs Stipa capilata); monovoltine species; overwinter as adults.

Nysius ericae ericae (Schilling, 1829). Xerophil, lives in dry places, well warmed by the sun with sparse vegetation, occurs on Compositae, Cruciferae, Rosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and other herbaceous plants, feeding on seeds of plants, bivoltine; the adults overwinter.

Emblethis ciliatus Horvath, 1875. Meso-xerophile. Inhabits the steppe, semi-desert, floodplains, sandy steppe, on saline areas); gives 2-3 generations per year; wintering adults.

Family of hunters–Nabidae. Nabisferus (Linnaeus, 1758). Mesophilic species, confined mainly to the banks of rivers, lakes and springs. A predator feeding on flies, aphids, cicadas, bedbugs and other insects. It is the most useful species of semi-Coleoptera in agriculture.

The family Rhopalidae – maces. Representatives Rhopalus subrufus (Gmelin, 1790) the species is mesophilous. Found on mesophytous meadow vegetation in forest and steppe areas, meadows and forest edges, roadsides, margins of forests, slopes of ravines; politicial various herbaceous plants; bivoltine; the adults overwinter.

Corizus hyoscyamihyoscyami (Linnaeus, 1758). The species is mesophilous. Inhabits clearings, meadows and other open habitats with moderate moisture; the main food plants are: niger Hyoscyamus, Tabacum, Ononis spinosa, Erodium, is considered a pest of legumes; bivoltine; the adults overwinter. Widespread, mass species.

Preliminary taxonomic composition of the families of semi-rigid winged groups
“Syrdaria-Turkestan”, their life forms and food specialization

Family

species

vital form

Food specialization

Nabidae

Nabis ferus

chortobiont

zооfag

Nabispunctatus

chortobiont

zооfag

Nabispallidus

dendrobiont

zооfag

Anthocoridae

Orius horvathi

chortobiont

zооfag

Xylocoris modestus

herpetobiont

zооfag

Reduviidae

Oncocephalusplumicornis

epigeobionts

zооfag

Rhynocoris iracundus

dendrochortobiont

zооfag

Rhopalidae

Rhopalusparumpunctatus

chortobiont

polifitofag

Stictopleurus punctatonervosus

chortobiont

wide oligofitofag

Corizus hyoscyami

chortobiont

polifitofag

Brachycarenus tigrinus

eurychortobiont

polifitofag

chortobiontMiridae

Stenodemacalcarata

chortobiont

polifitofag

Orthotylus eleagni

dendrobiont

зоофитофаг

Lyguspratensis

chortobiont

polifitofag

Adelphocorislineolatus

chortobiont

polifitofag

Nasocoriaephedrea

chortobiont

narrow oligofitofag

Capsus cinctus

chortobiont

wide oligofitofag

Trigonotylus caelestialium

chortobiont

wide oligofitofag

Plagiognathus chrysantemi

chortobiont

polifitofag

Lygaeidae

Bianchiella sarmatica

herpetobiont

narrow oligofitofag

Nysius ericae ericae

chortobiont

polifitofag

Emblethis ciliatus

herpeto-chortobiont

polifitofag

Lygaeus equestris

herpeto-chortobiont

polifitofag

Spilostethuspandurus

herpetobiont

polifitofag

Rhyparochromus vulgaris

herpeto-chortobiont

polifitofag

Heterogaster affinis

chortobiont

wide oligofitofag

Ischnocoris punctulatus

herpeto-chortobiont

narrow oligofitofag

Heterogaster urticae

chortobiont

narrow oligofitofag

chortobiont Coreidae

 

Coriomeris scabrocornis

herpeto-chortobiont

wide oligofitofag

Centrocoris volxemi

chortobiont

wide oligofitofag

Coreusmarginatus

chortobiont

wide oligofitofag

Syromastusrhombeus

chortobiont

polifitofag

Enoplopsscapha

chortobiont

polifitofag

Coreus marginatus marginatus

chortobiont

wide oligofitofag

Pentatomidae

Carpocoris fuscispinus

chortobiont

polifitofag

Carpocorispurpureipennis

chortobiont

polifitofag

Сarpocoris pudicus

chortobiont

polifitofag

Aelia acuminata

chortobiont

wide oligofitofag

Brachynema germari

chortobiont

polifitofag

Codophila varia

chortobiont

polifitofag

Antheminia lunulata

chortobiont

polifitofag

Eurydema ornate

chortobiont

wide oligofitofag

Carpocoris pudicus

chortobiont

полифитофаг

Graphosoma consimile

chortobiont

wide oligofitofag

Codophila varia

chortobiont

полифитофаг

Graphosoma lineatum

chortobiont

wide oligofitofag

Dolycorisbaccarum

eurychortobiont

polifitofag

Eurydema oleracea

chortobiont

oligofitofag

Scutelleridae

Eurygasterintergriceps

chortobiont

wide oligofitofag

Odontotarsuspurpureolineatus

chortobiont

polifitofag

End table

Family

species

vital form

Food specialization

Rhopalidae

Corizus hyoscyami

chortobiont

polifitofag

Brachycarenus tigrinus

eurychortobiont

polifitofag

Chorosoma schillingii

chortobiont

wide oligofitofag

Maccevethus corsicus persicus

chortobiont

polifitofag

Rhopalus subrufus

chortobiont

polifitofag

Stictopleurus crassicornis

chortobiont

polifitofag

Stenocephalidae

Dicranocephalusagilis

chortobiont

narrow oligofitofag

Notonectidae

Notonectaglauca

hidrobiont

zoofitofag

Pleidae

Plea minutissima

hidrobiont

zoofitofag

Naucoridae

Ilyocoriscimicoides

hidrobiont

zoofag

Nepidae

Nepa cinerea

hidrobiont

zoofag

Ranatralinearis

hidrobiont

zооfag

Gerridae

Gerris odontogaster

hidrobiont

zооfag

Pyrrhocoridae

Pyrrhocoris apterus

herpetobiont

zoofitofag

Gerris lacustris

hidrobiont

zооfag

 

Family Coreidae – Crevice. Representatives – Coriomeris scabrocornis scabrocornis (Panzer, 1805). Lives on the surface of the soil in open habitats; in meadows, steppes, soils of different types, tends to sandy and clay; found on legumes and herbaceous plants of other families; gives up to 2 generations per year; wintering adults and larvae.

Coreus marginatus (Linnaeus,1758). Plant-eating bug that lives on different plants. Adults are omnivorous, feed mainly on sorrel. Larvae on buckwheat. During the growing season gives one generation. It hibernates in the adult phase of the insect under plant litter.

Conclusion

The preliminary studies conducted by the authors in the species composition of semi-Coleoptera, as well as in their life forms and food specialization showed the following results:

– as a result of research, 65 species of bedbugs belonging to 17 families were identified;

– the largest number of species are Pentatomidae (21.5 %), Lygaeidae (13.8 %), Miridae (12.3 %), Rhopalidae and Coreidae (9.2 % each). In such families as Naucoridae, Pleidae, Gerridae, Stenocephalidae revealed one species;

– life forms dominated by a group of chortobionts and the number of species and the number of presents in her collections;

– trophic groups of semi-Coleoptera are represented as follows: phytophages (in General, more than 76.9 % of the known number of species), zoophages (18.4 %), species with mixed type of nutrition (4.7 %).

The obtained data on the taxonomic composition, ecology of semi-winged studied GRPP “Syrdarya-Turkestan” confirm the importance of this specially protected area in the conservation of biodiversity of semi-winged southern Kazakhstan. – trophic groups of semi-Coleoptera are represented as follows: phytophages (in General, more than 76.9 % of the known number of species), zoophages (18.4 %), species with mixed type of nutrition (4.7 %).

The obtained data on the taxonomic composition, ecology of semi-winged studied GRPP “Syrdarya-Turkestan” confirm the importance of this specially protected area in the conservation of biodiversity of semi-winged southern Kazakhstan.