Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF THE KAZAKH LANGUAGE DURING THE TRANSITION TO THE LATIN SCRIPT

Yermekova T.N. 1 Odanova S.A. 1 Zhangabayeva N.A. 1 Esenbayeva G.Zh. 2 Akylbауeva T.Zh. 2
1 Kazakh State Women’s Teacher Training University
2 Kazakh Academy of Sport and Tourism
Along with the problem of transition to the Latin alphabet, there are questions of orthography. This is because there is a significant difference between writing characters of Kazakh sounds in Cyrillic and in Latin characters. While these issues do not find solutions, we can not talk about raising the level of literacy. Therefore, problems with spelling are of paramount importance. In this project, we will seek to find solutions to spelling problems based on past experience, as well as to solve the problems that arise after the transition to the Latin alphabet using mobile technologies. One of the main goals of this work is to create the possibility of using mobile applications based on multimedia technologies using modern devices. And the transition of the Kazakh society into a Latin alphabet is one of the most effective solutions of modernity. Given that about 5 million Kazakhs live in different parts of the world today, 80 percent of them use the Latin alphabet, and the Latin alphabet is an indication of national identity achievement.
Along with the problem of transition to the Latin alphabet, there are questions of orthography. This is because there is a significant difference between writing characters of Kazakh sounds in Cyrillic and in Latin characters. While these issues do not find solutions, we can not talk about raising the level of literacy. Therefore, problems with spelling are of paramount importance. In this project, we will seek to find solutions to spelling problems based on past experience, as well as to solve the problems that arise after the transition to the Latin alphabet using mobile technologies. One of the main goals of this work is to create the possibility of using mobile applications based on multimedia technologies using modern devices. And the transition of the Kazakh society into a Latin alphabet is one of the most effective solutions of modernity. Given that about 5 million Kazakhs live in different parts of the world today, 80 percent of them use the Latin alphabet, and the Latin alphabet is an indication of national identity achievement.
programs
mobile applications
game programs aimed at teaching latin graphics will be created
1. Artificial languages (electronic resource) – URL: https://kk.wikipedia.org (date of the application: 22.03.2018).
2. Borovskiy Ya.M. Latin language as an international language of science // Problems of the international auxiliary language. – M., 1991. – P. 70-76.
3. Official periodical. The material is taken from the official site of the newspaper Independent Kazakhstan – URL: https://egemen.kz/article/165178-latyn-alipbiininh-nusqasyna-oezgeris-engizildi (date of the application: 22.02.2018)
4. Nazarbayev NA Strategy “Kazakhstan-2050” is a new political course of the established state “. Astana, 2013.
5. Nazarbayev NA Orientation for the future: spiritual revival // True Kazakhstan. 12.04.2017. No. 70 (29051).
6. Bogyavlensky D. N. Psychology of the formation of orthography. М.: Education, 1966. – 304 p.
7. Stenographical report of the scientifically – spelling commission 2-4. 06. 1929. Scientifically – methodical consultation with the NCC CCCI. Kyzylorda city 1930. – 482 р.
8. Zhubanov K. Studies in the Kazakh language. – Almaty: Nauka, 199. – 581 p.
9. Kuderinova K. Theoretical Bases of the Kazakh Law. – Almaty: Center for Development of the State Language, 2010. – 380 р.
10. Abdrakhmanov S. https: //egemen.kz/.../ 158174-uaqytpen-undesken-rukhani-ur ...
11. Ospanova B. Language Policy of the Independence of Azerbaijani State. URL: www.rusnauka.com/15_KPSN_2015/.../7_193467.doc.htm (date of the application: 17.01.2018).

The globalization process of the world requires the unification of the Turkic-speaking peoples from the socio-economic, cultural and spiritual point of view. The unification of the spiritual values of the Turkic world serves to uplift the historical and cultural heritage of the Turkic peoples and the socio-cultural potential of the modern Turkic peoples, deepen their historical roots and determine the place of Turkic civilization in human civilization. At the same time, there is no danger of turning the spiritual and cultural development into a different direction if the world’s civilizations do not support the historical roots of the Kazakh people. There are also nations that have not been able to move on to the new era all over the world. This global process, which has a positive or negative impact on the future of our independent state, requires a great deal of responsibility on our nation. Independence of the country gives opportunity to Turkic peoples to explore our common cultural heritage, to recognize their true nature, to use it for the benefit of the nation, to re-evaluate and re-evaluate our spiritual values. The Turkic languages, including the formation of the Kazakh language, the way of development of the ways of development, the active activity of the way of development of the national world, which are of interest of the researchers at different periods of time, require further study of the national cognition and historical arteries, including the special methods of research at the turn of the century. First of all, Latin is recognized as the international language of science and literature, even though it is not specifically enforced by law. Of course, there are also artificial languages represented as an international language. The extensive support of artificial languages – the Esperanto language, made by Polish doctor L. Zamangof in 1887, and so forth [1].

Not one of the more than 200 artificial languages presented in this way has denied the historical role of the Latin language. The third language of our era was the only language of culture in the western part of the gentle Mediterranean, the Latin language, – writes Ya.M. Borovsky [2]. Even after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, and even in XIII-XIII centuries, artistic creativity and scientific thinking remained the main means of Catholic religion. It is well-known that some of the Turkic written heritage published in this period was also printed in Latin.Now the Latin language is the language of natural sciences, as well as the main language of the anatomical, medical and pharmacological nomenclature, and continuously enhances its potential in the terminological system of all fields of science and technology. Moreover, the language, which has become the main tool of historical education, has been the main language of European culture since antiquity. The classical historical record proves the viability of the language because the linguistic, general philosophical analysis of the data is inadequate, and the fact that higher education institutions fail in the curriculum of the philology profession. It is no secret that civilized countries, in the age of IT, have modern technology and computer information, the main language and terminology of this industry is still in Latin. It is no secret that the social and economic system of the society moves to the path of innovative development and the world of science and education, the main language of the world – the Latin language, is in the center of the world to be able to increase its openness to the outside world. And the transition of the Kazakh society into a Latin alphabet is one of the most effective solutions of modernity. Given that about 5 million Kazakhs live in different parts of the world today, 80 percent of them use the Latin alphabet, and the Latin alphabet is an indication of national identity achievement.

At the moment, the problem of training of the Kazakh written system on the national basis is in the foreground. The Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated October 26, 2017 “On transferring the Kazakh language from Cyrillic to Latin graphics” was amended on February 19, 2018 and a new version of the Kazakh alphabet based on Latin graphics was approved [3]. Some of the issues discussed in the alphabetical versions of the first alphabet were discussed and resolved. The reason was that if we were to take the maximum number of letters in the English alphabet, we would lose our original language. The use of the principle “One-to-one” is one of the most effective ways to save the original sounds in the Kazakh language – most of the correspondents support it.

The head of State noted the transition to the Latin alphabet in his Missive to the people of Kazakhstan “Strategy of Kazakhstan-2050”: a new political course for the state “: “ We need to start translating our alphabet into Latin alphabet, starting in 2025. This is a matter of principle, which the nation must solve. “And on the eve of the new year at a meeting with representatives of the main domestic television channels, he said: “The transition to the Latin alphabet also has its own deep historical logic. These are the features of the modern technological environment, and features of communications in the modern world, and features of the scientific and educational process in the 21st century. This means that from now on we must start the transition to the Latin alphabet in all areas. This is the requirement of the future. Therefore, we must strive for it” [4]. In addition, N. Nazarbayev in his report “Looking into the Future: Modernizing Public Consciousness” offers a number of projects that can stand the test of the era to solve problems in time. One of these projects is the transition to the Latin schedule. The president said that the Kazakh alphabet is deeply rooted and added: “First, it is necessary to begin work for a phased transition of the Kazakh language to the Latin alphabet. We very carefully and tactfully approached this question. This requires a quiet staged. And we prepared for this with caution all the years of Independence”. “This means that from now on we must start the transition to the Latin alphabet in all areas. In other words, by the year 2025, we begin to publish office work, periodicals, textbooks and everything else in the Latin alphabet. And now we will start preparing the beginning of the transition to the Latin alphabet” [5].

And also the goal is to present their own individual perspectives and prove their effectiveness proceeding from the opinion “with the help of scientists until the end of 2017 we must adopt a single standard version of the Kazakh alphabet in a new graph with reference to all members of the community”.

Since every patriot, especially for linguists, should take part in solving these national problems, we consider it necessary to consider ways of theoretical and practical implementation of this task in a higher educational institution.

It is appropriate to listen to the views of the scientists, especially the Turks who have experience in this case, in a state-of-the-art question such as moving to Latin. It shows our culture. Yes, of course, not all Kazakhs in Kazakhstan speak, write, work in Kazakh. It’s our fate, and it’s our fate. If we dig the cause, we will go deeper. It is well-known that if all Kazakhs do not speak Kazakh they will have difficulty in moving to Latin. That is why the President suggested that Strategy Kazakhstan-2050 not only Kazakhs but also 95 % of the population in Kazakhstan will master the state language in 2025. That is, in the meantime, when we have a massive mastering of the whole population, we can easily get into Latin. Taking this into account, we must acknowledge the greatness of the President.

Along with the problem of transition to the Latin alphabet, there are questions of orthography. This is because there is a significant difference between writing characters of Kazakh sounds in Cyrillic and in Latin characters. While these issues do not find solutions, we can not talk about raising the level of literacy. Therefore, problems with spelling are of paramount importance. In this project, we will seek to find solutions to spelling problems based on past experience, as well as to solve the problems that arise after the transition to the Latin alphabet using mobile technologies.

It is known that at the beginning of the 20th century, the Kazakh people repeatedly changed the schedule. What actions were taken to teach writing and linguistic literacy at this time? Of course, one can not compare methods of teaching spelling in those days with current methods. In the beginning and middle of the twentieth century, special dictionaries were published and used to verify the correctness of words. Of course dictionaries are now important in teaching, but at the same time, due to the development of technology, new learning opportunities are being created. Today, for optimal solution of spelling problems in connection with the transition to the Latin alphabet, it is possible to create special mobile applications.

There is an opinion that for the development of literacy it is necessary to rewrite all the time. It’s probably no one will deny. “...The acquisition of spelling was represented as a process of gradual accumulation of “visual images”, i.e. memorization of the spelling of individual words, supported by repeated visual perception and motor-motor reactions of writing “[6]. Therefore, the correct method was to re-sound the spoken word, then its spelling. But beyond this, there are visual-audiovisual methods that take into account the knowledge of the meaning and root of the word. Using these methods, spelling skills are formed.

The linguistic basis for the transition to the Latin schedule was made in 1929. The basic rules of the linguistic basis for the transition to the Latin schedule was made in 1929. The basic rules of Kazakh graphics and spelling and the first version of spelling were discussed at a conference in the city Kyzylorda. The conference was attended by linguists: E. Omarov, T. Shonanuly, K. Kemengerovich, E. Polivanov, K. Zhubanov. At the conference, the use of phonetic principles, phonemic principles, morphological principles and traditional principles in writing was analyzed, and the work carried out then significantly contributed to the construction of a sequence of Kazakh spelling [7].

Many things were discussed at this conference, however K.Zhubanov draws attention to the lack of spelling rules, and notes that this indicates not the positive side of spelling, but vice versa for its lack [8].

K. Kuderinova, who examined the theoretical foundations of Kazakh script, says: “The basis of today’s spelling rules comes from the concepts of K. Zhubanov” [9]. She notes that when we consider the full transition of the Kazakh script to the Latin alphabet, at the stage of preparation for this process, we are faced with the task of examining the weaknesses of the previously created rules, taking into account the “remaining unaccounted” aspects of the existing spelling rules and improving them.

S. Abdrakhmanov, member of the Senate Committee on Science and Social and Cultural Development, said: “First of all, we must rely on the experience of neighboring Turkic-speaking countries that have already switched to the Latin alphabet, through what problems they went through with the transition to a new writing system, we must all this is taken into account and analyzed “and added that it is necessary to take into account the experience of countries that have passed into the Latin schedule [10]. And also noted the fact that 23 years have passed since Uzbekistan switched to the Latin script, but they are still actively using Cyrillic. To avoid the occurrence of a similar situation and find a solution, it is planned to create innovations based on the development of interactive training programs and the use of multimedia technologies.

This project is very important on a national scale. Therefore, it is clear that the problem of language training will arise from the first day of the beginning of the process of transition to the Latin schedule, which is a new era of the development of Kazakh script. After the beginning of the transition, there will be problems with reading and learning the language. The presented research project will contribute to a positive resolution of these problems.

The importance of the project “Linguistic foundations and multimedia technologies for the creation of interactive training programs, in connection with the transition to Latin graphics” is aimed at eliminating linguistic complexities in the transition to Latin graphics. This is a promising project that will meet the future demands and needs of society. The implementation of this project with the participation of programmers also indicates the desire to meet this need, which is aimed at developing literacy and correct spelling.

One of the main goals of this work is to create the possibility of using mobile applications based on multimedia technologies using modern devices. In the scale of this project, for the first time educational programs, mobile applications, game programs aimed at teaching Latin graphics will be created.

When Kazakhstan switches to the Latin schedule, it is necessary to take into account the experience of the transition of other Turkic-speaking countries to the Latin schedule. During the transition to the Latin schedule on June 18, 2001, Azerbaijani President H. Aliyev noted in his message “On improving the use of the state language” that the transition to the Latin schedule is slow, although 10 years have passed. He pointed out that Azerbaijani linguists did not take into account the fact that transition and training are two different things [11].

At one time, an automated system for teaching the Tatar language based on Latin script was created. The authors of this work are: R. Khadiev, R. Bagavieva, P. Aukhadiev, R. Bagaviev, K.R. Khadiev. The textbook describes the need to use computer-multimedia tools for teaching students writing on the basis of Latin graphics. For young children, different kinds of games are offered in the Tatar language, which are aimed at teaching the Tatar language on the basis of Latin graphics. Attention is also paid to the formation of skills and teaching the basic rules of spelling (literacy) of the Tatar language on the basis of the Latin alphabet. There are suggested tasks for graphical representation of texts recorded on audio recordings, and vice versa correct execution of orthoepy of written words.

In addition, in neighboring Turkic countries, there are almost no mobile applications or special language training programs based on Latin graphics. In the teaching of the Kazakh language, based on the linguistic basis for the transition to Latin script, interactive training programs created on the basis of special mobile technologies will be developed for the first time. Therefore, the possibility of financing this project should be high.

The main benefit is that the products that will be prepared on a scale of this project will allow individually, each trainee himself to master the presented material. The main task of education today is constant self-development, and in this respect the presented project will have great opportunities in implementing the teaching of writing on the basis of Latin graphics.

At present, we are searching for solutions to such topical issues of transition to Latin script of the Kazakh alphabet, as a solution to spelling problems, spelling, creation of special training programs, etc.

After learning Latin graphics, the question of how to train it is also important. Taking into account the fact that the Kazakh State Women’s Teacher Training University is a pedagogical university, it is also planned to begin training of new alphabet experts and textbooks for kindergartens and secondary schools this academic year. For this purpose the rector of our university G. Aldambergenova, we have created a Latin center and plan to do our job.

There is a growing need for curriculum related to the transition to Latin graphics. In this regard, our university is actively working on the fundamental research project financed by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The specific feature of the research project is the collaboration of philologists and IT specialists. As the first result, you can say the electronic tutorial “Literacy education”. This tutorial is ideal for learning alphabet in pre-school classes. The language of the program is very easy, it has a positive impact on the child’s ability to visualize, visualize, memorize and visualize. The program has a good picture of an e-teacher, and the latter has the opportunity to learn and repeat it to formulate the listening, listening and speaking skills.

In addition to the problem of transition to Latin graphics, the problem of orthography also occurs. Because of the differences in the sounds of the Kazakh sounds in the cyrillic graphics and Latin graphics, it creates spelling problems. These issues will not be solved and literacy will not rise to a higher level. That’s why the problem of spelling is an urgent issue. It is obvious that one of the actual problems is to solve the problems of orthography, to solve the problems of the spelling of the Latin graphic, based on the past experience and the views of scientists. At this point, a special site on Latin alphabet teaching is being developed at the university. The content of the site is based on the spelling of spelling, preparing test tasks for the correct writing skills. We believe this method is an indispensable method for performing a well-trained, easy-to-use test.

Nowadays, it is possible to build effective, easy-to-use skills and critical thinking skills through the incredible learningapps program that teaches teachers effectively to organize the learning process. Based on this program, we have already done a number of tasks in teaching the Latin alphabet. Here the task is structured in a variety of shapes and content. The content includes texts of educational importance. That is, it is not possible for the learner to become bored and focused.

Let’s now have a look at some of the issues that need to be settled in some of the issues that arise in the writing of the Latin alphabet:

– Writing complementary words should be based on the spelling of the original orthoopic law of the Kazakh language, based on the national articulation base, using its internal capabilities;

– In the Company, as a solution to the problems that have become the subject of many debate, we support the following statement: In the case of joint Kazakh roots s and h (x), the letter q is used instead of h (x) in order to maintain a meaningful resistance. For example: Ashat, ashana (dining room) words Asqat, asqana and others. If we write this word is read in Kazakh, it will be read as hungry mother, ashat, and the meaning of the first one changes, the value will disappear.

After making a change in graphics, Kazakh phonetics and spells will be completely changed. Analysis and analysis of this doctrine is the work of all intellectuals (scientists), scientists, teachers, teachers, writers. Without doubt, it will be a good result when it comes to analyzing, analyzing and analyzing the various Latin alphabet problems in the formation of the intellectual nation.