Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

VEGETATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE HIGHLANDS OF THE NARYN REGION (INNER TIEN SHAN)

Omurova K.O. 1
1 Naryn State University named after S. Naamatov
In this work the general vegetation of the Inner Tien Shan is considered. The Tien Shan is a large system of mountain ranges stretching for 2450 km east-north-easterly direction. 198.5 thousand km2 of the Tien Shan territory is located in Kyrgyzstan occupying the Central and Inner Tien Shan, partially-Western and Northern. In the highlands of the Tien Shan, due to special physical and geographical conditions, a complex history of origin and development, a peculiar, distinctive flora and vegetation was formed. Therefore, almost 95?% of the territory of Kyrgyzstan is covered by mountains covered with natural vegetation, which is suitable for the use of medicinal plants of pasture and haymaking use. This favors the agricultural production of the republic. The area of ??the Inner Tien Shan is 80 thousand km2. Of these, more than half are raised over 3000 m. urn.m. With the purpose of preserving unique natural complexes, protection of rare and endangered species of animals and plants of the Inner Tien Shan, by the Resolution of the Kyrgyz Republic Government dated 1 March 1994, the Karatal-Japyryk State Reserve was organized on the territory of the reserve about 400 plant species were noted, 50 species of medicinal plants.
In this work the general vegetation of the Inner Tien Shan is considered. The Tien Shan is a large system of mountain ranges stretching for 2450 km east-north-easterly direction. 198.5 thousand km2 of the Tien Shan territory is located in Kyrgyzstan occupying the Central and Inner Tien Shan, partially-Western and Northern. In the highlands of the Tien Shan, due to special physical and geographical conditions, a complex history of origin and development, a peculiar, distinctive flora and vegetation was formed. Therefore, almost 95?% of the territory of Kyrgyzstan is covered by mountains covered with natural vegetation, which is suitable for the use of medicinal plants of pasture and haymaking use. This favors the agricultural production of the republic. The area of ??the Inner Tien Shan is 80 thousand km2. Of these, more than half are raised over 3000 m. urn.m. With the purpose of preserving unique natural complexes, protection of rare and endangered species of animals and plants of the Inner Tien Shan, by the Resolution of the Kyrgyz Republic Government dated 1 March 1994, the Karatal-Japyryk State Reserve was organized on the territory of the reserve about 400 plant species were noted, 50 species of medicinal plants.
mountain structure
grass-motley
kobresia
accumulation
1. 20th anniversary of The Karatal-Japyryk State Nature Reserve Bishkek: 2014. – 460 p.
2. Chupakhin V.M. Inner Tian Shan – Frunze: Kyrgyz Ministry of Agriculture USSR. – 1979. 128 p.
3. Golovkova A.G. Vegetation of Kyrgyzstan – Frunze: Ilim, 1990. – 452 p.
4. Tsekanov A.S., Sodombekov I.S. Use and protection optimization of Song Kol basin vegetation (Recommendations). – Frunze, 1988. – 115p.
5. Alimbaeva P.K., Goncharova A.V. Wild herbs of Kyrgyzstan. Frunze, 1981. – 270 p.
6. Russian-Kyrgyz Dictionary of Plant Names and Botanical Terms Bishkek: Turar, 2013. – 338 p.

In the Central-Eastern part of Inner Tien Shan there is Karatal-Japyryk State Nature Reserve situated. It was established by resolution of the Kyrgyz Republic Government on the 1st of March 1994 with purpose of conservation of unique nature complexes, protection of rare and threatened species of flora and fauna of Central Tien-Shan, and maintaining regional environmental balance. The reserve currently occupies 21,264 hectares at an altitude of 2150-3980 m. above sea level being set with Son-Kul-Too and Acha-Tash ranges in the north and the range of Boor-Albas in the south. In general, the territory is a powerful mountain structure, considerably elevated (at least 2500 m, max – 4000 m above sea level) with a complex combination of ridges that occupy most of the reserve territory [1].

Objectives:

– processing of literature data on Inner Tien Shan vegetation description;

– scheduling of climatic conditions on the reserve’s territory;

– tabling of medicinal plants’ growing on the territory of the reserve expansion;

– studying the degree of distribution of medicinal plants in various high-landscape belts of the reserve.

Results of research and their discussion

The climate of the reserve is severe, harsh continental, with great fluctuations, both in seasons and during the day. Highland belt is cool in summer and cold (in places) and snowy in winter. July temperature here is +11, +16 °С. Winter is long (November-March) with January average temperatures –17, –20 °С. Nival belt (from 3500 m and above) is characterized by a harsh climate. This is the belt of snowfields, rocks, glaciers, moisture accumulation. Even in the lower part of this belt the average July temperatures do not exceed –4, –7 °С, average January ones fall to –22 °С. The average amount of precipitation is from 400 to 500 mm per year.

The relatively high air temperature in the summer period, followed by increased insolation, and constantly blowing winds contribute to the rapid evaporation of water from the soil and its desiccation. That’s why the development of plants in the highlands is strongly influenced by climatic factors, especially atmospheric precipitation [2].

In general, the Inner Tien Shan highland vegetation’s features are: narrow floristic spectrum; domination of grassy-motley and kobresia communities, different medicinal plants and low prevalence of shrubby and total absence of woody plants; predominance of steppes over other types of vegetation; low-level monodominant communities; high edifying role of dominants [3].

Woody vegetation is represented mainly by forests from spruce trees (Tien Shan) – picea schrenkiana and archaean Turkestan – juniperus turkestanica. They are typical for the forest meadow-steppe belt. Common bush – the alberta briar (rosa aiberti) is common of the bushes. Common cereals: oatgrass furrowed-festuca suicata, pinnate feather-brachypodium pinnatum, timothy grass-phleum pratense, oat-helictotrichon. Common herbs – geranium rocky-geranium saxatile, the vysilistnik simple and smelly-thalictrum simplex, foetidum [4]. Names of medicinal plants are shown in the table.

omur1.wmf

Fig. 1. High mountain belt (2200–3500 m) in summer

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Fig. 2. High mountain belt (2200–3500 m) in winter

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Fig. 3. Nival belt (3500 m and above) in winter

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Fig. 4. Nival belt (3500 m and above) in summer

Names of medicinal plants

 

Common medicinal plants in nature reserve

Reserve areas.

Karatal-Achatash

Song-Kul

Chatyr-Kul

1

Tien Shan Wormwood – Artemisia tianschanica Composite Family -Asteraceae

Mai-Kungoy, Karatal-Achatash, Kol-Tor, Korzhoy.

Teipshi, Song Kol southern part

 

2

Green Wormwood –Artemisia viridis Composite Family -Asteraceae

Korzhoy, Achatash, Kol-Tor

   

3

Turkestan Allheal -Valeriana turkestanica (V tianschanica. V officinalis auct). Valeriana Family – Valerianа

Zhele-Karagai, Zhazy-Karagai, Mai-Kungoy

   

4

Common dandelion Composite Family – Taraxacum officinale – Asteraceae

Considered to be a popular herb

Batail-Aral, Teipshi, Kumduu-Suu

South-eastern part

5

Foalfoot. Tusilag-Ofarfara Composite Family – Asteraceae

Kol-Tor, Achatash, Karatal

   

6

Yarrow -А.millefoliumL Composite Family – Asteraceae

Sai-Achyk, Zhele-Karagai, Zhazy-Karagai, Mai-Kungoy

   

7

Marshalov thyme – Thymus. marschallianusL. Mint Family – Lfmiaceae

Karatal-Achatash

   

8

Meadow pine – Equisetum arvense Horsetail Family– Equisetaceae

Karatal-Achatash, Kol-Tor

Kumduu-Suu, Teipshi, Kaz-Uya.

South-eastern part

9

Marjoram – Origanum vulgare Mint Family – Lamiaceae

Zhazy-Karagai, Archaluu Tor, Zhondomo

   

10

Hoary plantain – Plantago media Plantain Family– Plantaginaceae

Zhazy-Karagai, Archaluu Tor, Zhondomo

   

11

Common tansy -Tanacetum vulgare. Composite Family -Asteraceae

 

Batail-Aral, Teipshi

South-eastern part

12

Common edelweiss – Leontopodium ochroleucum Composite Family – Asteraceae

Karatal, Kol-Tor, Achatash, Sai-Achyk nival areas

 

Kara-Suu, Karasai-Bulak

13

Bur beggar-ticks -Bidens tripartite Composite Family -Asteraceae

Kok-Bel, Achatash

   

14

Horseheal -Inula helenium.L Composite Family – Asteraceae

Kok-Bel, Karatal Kol-Tor.

   

15

Knot grass-Polygonum aviculare.Buckwheat Family- Polygonaceae

Korzhoy, Kok-Bel, Mai-Kungoy

   

16

Grey wallflower-Erysimum canescens Cabbage Family – Brassicaceae

Zhele-Karagai,Mai-Kungoy

   

17

Small-flowered Adonis -Adonis Buttercup Family. – Ranunculaseae

Kol-Tor

   

18

Rotundifolious

monkshood -Aconitum rotundifplium Buttercup Family – Ranunculaseae

Kok-Bel, Сай -Ачык, Kol-Tor, Zhele-Karagai, Mai-Kungoy

   

19

Blindweed – Capsella bursa-pastoris Cabbage Family – Brassicaceae

Mai-Kungoy, Kok-Bel, Zhondomo

   

20

Turkestan Motherwort – Leonurus turkestanicus.Mint Family- Lamiaceae

Kara-Jylga, Zhele-Karagai, Kok-Bel, Kol-Tor, Karatal

   

21

Desert sage -Salbial dererta Mint Family – Labiatae(Lamiaceae)

Bel-Teipshi, Sai-Achyk, Kyzyl-Belес, Kara-Jylga

   

Note: [5, 6].

Conclusion

The study of wild medicinal plants in various phytocenoses of high-mountainous areas has great theoretical and practical significance.

The main wild-growing species are valuable medicinal plants of the steppes, meadow-steppes, subalpine meadows of the Tien Shan. Therefore, the proper planning of further research works will yield good results in the study of plants and plant communities, the sustainable use and conservation of vegetation in the Inner Tien Shan.