Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

NEW CONCEPTION OF CREATION OF “ZERO” ECOBUILDINGS AND ECOCITIES ON BASE OF ECOLOGICAL INFRASTRUCTURE

Tetior A. 1
1 K.А. Timirjasev Agricultural Academy
New science “ecocitylogy” as new conception of creation of “zero” ecobuildings and ecocities is based on three principles: “zero” interference in the nature, “zero” consumption of consumable resources from state networks, “zero” emission of pollution. The basis of “zero” ecobuildings and ecocities creation is new branch in building ecology – ecological infrastructure (it is complex of natural resources, constructions and systems, providing support of environment of human life at all levels – from the whole country up to cities and to separate buildings). Environment of life and environments of “zero” buildings and cities must be subject to all-embracing ecologization. All-embracing ecologization is system of upbringing of ecological thinking for respective activity and for use of ecological decisions based on ecological postulates, ecological philosophy and ethics, principles of sustainable building, adoption into account ethnical and geographical traits, social-psychological and social-economical features of inhabitants in city.
ecocitylogy
conception
ecological infrastructure

Three principles of new conception of “zero” ecobuildings and of “zero” ecocities creation include the following important parts of positive interaction of humanity with nature: “zero” interference in the nature; “zero” consumption of consumable resources from city networks; “zero” emission of pollution. Every part consists of several factors (table 1). One of the most important factors is preservation of landscapes with soil – vegetative layer from buildings and engineering structures. The surface of the ground in ecocity should be free; it may be filled by natural and cultural landscapes, and exempted from transport (fig. 1). This problem can be solved by overground and underground construction.

Zero” ecocities with ecobuildings may include all components of natural landscapes; all complex of protected natural territories; all technosphere, all directions of human activity – architecture, construction, industry, power, transport, water supply, removal and processing of waste products; socio – psychological and socio – economic environment; ecological satisfaction of needs of inhabitants. Ideological base of “zero” ecocities creation should be ecological postulates.

Results of research and their discussion

It is possible to believe, that the “zero” ecocities with ecobuildings with equality between their citizens can be created by help of new scientific complex inclusive urban ecology, architectural ecology, building ecology, ecological infrastructure, resilience of life in city, sensory ecology, ecological philosophy, ecological ethics, socio-psychological and socio-economic decisions [1-5]. This new scientific complex and its usage will allow creating ecological healthy cities and settlements, to stop retreat of nature, and to achieve a state of ecological equilibrium. Urban, architectural and building ecology is interconnected sciences about making of settlements and buildings, which are in balance with nature, and allow creating high-quality environment in region, cities and in buildings. These purposes are achieved by ecological decision of territorial, planning, geological, geographical, biological, hygienic, architectural, technical and aesthetic problems starting with general town planning scheme and ending with construction of biopositive buildings. Solution set includes many directions of ecological construction, from biopositive buildings for preservation of soil-vegetable layer with flora and fauna, to backing of flora and fauna by help of creation of ecological framework, etc. (table 2) The new scientific complex should help to solve problems of “zero” ecocity and ecobuildings creation, including at gradual ecological reconstruction of any city. This complex consists of three principal directions: ecological environment, ecological activity, and ecological society. All these directions are equally important for forming of “zero” ecocity and ecobuildings.

New complex of interconnected sciences for healthy cities creation includes the sciences about ecological, healthy, sustainable and beauty cities with high-quality environment of person’s life and with environmental technologies: urban ecology, architectural ecology, building ecology, ecological infrastructure, sensory ecology, and ecological ethics. Creation of “zero” ecocity is based on inculcation of ecological thinking, ecological culture, eco-philosophy, and ecological ethics. It is possible to assert, that ecological compatibility, biopositivity of “zero” ecocity, their life in harmony with the natural environment as allied component is the good way of the development, allowing carrying out eternal humanity’s dream of unity with nature.

The fundamental concept of ecocities will be invariable: they will be in ecological equilibrium with nature, and thus to create ecologically well-founded high quality environment life for inhabitants. But they will differ essentially from each other by set of individual decisions – from the size of city up to a degree of use of renewable resources, from a degree of preservation of the natural environment up to use of local materials, from a degree of equality of inhabitants up to a level of satisfaction of needs of inhabitants, etc. A base of new scientific complex is ecological infrastructure (table 3). Ecological infrastructure is complex of natural resources, constructions and systems, providing support of environment of human life at all levels – from the whole country up to cities, to separate buildings and engineering constructions. Ecological infrastructure includes interactive among themselves completely natural environment, quasi-natural cultural environment – cultural landscapes etc., artificial technical environment of cities, socio – psychological and socio – economic medium (table 3). Ecological infrastructure is the interactive among themselves mastered and natural territories, ecological framework of city and green corridors, soil – vegetative layer, biopositive and “clever” buildings, systems of phyto-melioration and permaculture, ecologically restored landscapes and ecologically reconstructed buildings, favourable perceptible city environment, favourable conditions of life.

Table 1

Principles of creation of “zero” ecocities and ecobuildings

Three principles of creation of “zero” ecocities and ecobuildings

“Zero” interference in the nature

“Zero” consumption of consumable resources from city networks

“Zero” emission of pollution

“Zero” built-up area of buildings

Use of natural technologies in lighting, ventilation, conditioning, etc.

Use of ecological life cycle by creation and maintenance of buildings and cities

Overground and underground buildings

Energy-active buildings

Use of ecological and recycled building materials

Sensory likeness of built-up territory to nature

Energy-efficient buildings

Use of systems of renewable energy from bio-waste

Minimal interference to natural circulation of matter

Reduction of water consumption

Use of systems of biological purification of waste

Planting of greenery of all artificial surfaces of buildings

Renewable thermal energy generation

“Zero” water drain

Support of being of small animals and birds

Utilization of thermal waste

Utilization of all waste

Creation of green corridors for support of biovariety

Use of intelligent (clever) systems in building and city for achievement of “zero” effect

 

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Fig. 1. Scheme of “zero” ecocity with ecobuildings: 1 – overground buildings: 2 – underground parts of buildings; 3 – green roof; 4 – soil-vegetable layer; 5 – underground structures; 6 – underground street with sun lighting; 7 – “green hill”

Table 2

Scientific complex for “zero” ecocity and ecobuildings creation

Ecological environment

Ecological activity

Ecological society

All-embracing ecologization of environment

All-embracing ecologization of all activity

Support of equality

Support of ecological balance between city and nature

Resilience of socio-ecological system of city

Support of equal rights in free access to all world resources

Creation of ecological framework of city and region

Resilience of social component of system

Ecological upbringing and education

Creation and support of well-founded ecological infrastructure

Resilience of ecological component of city. Support of well-founded eco-footprint

Eco-philosophy, ecological ethics of inhabitants

Support of well-founded volume of nature

Urban ecology. Phyto-melioration.

Maintenance of ecological rights of inhabitants

Maintenance of flora and fauna by help of human activity

Architectural-constructive ecology. Sensory ecology (visual, smell, sound)

Ecological rights and duties. Participation in support of healthy environment

Restoration of all components of landscapes

All-embracing ecologization of industry, transport, etc.

Upbringing with help of beauty environment. Love to city

 

Table 3

Frame of ecological infrastructure

Artificial environment with all-embracing ecologization

Completely natural environment

Quasi-natural (cultural) environment

Technological systems with their ecologization

All natural territories with natural flora and fauna

Created by the person green areas

Traditional infrastructure with ecologization

All natural resources

Ecological built environment

Systems warning and liquidating adverse phenomena

Natural ecological framework with ecological corridors

Ecological cities and towns. Ecological buildings

Socio-economic and socio-psychological medium

 

Urban ecology is most general science for ecological design of territories of cities and towns. It includes the decisions of ecological problems of big territories. The major problem of urban ecology is creation of the ecological framework of big territory. Ecological framework of Earth is system of large natural territories, which are interconnected by ecological corridors, indissoluble interrelation of which allows supporting ecological equilibrium, environment of life, and biovariety.

“Zero” ecobuildings should be multifunctional, and alongside with the basic function (apartment house, industrial building, see shore construction etc.) can carry out one or several nature protection functions. “Zero” ecobuildings can use the renewable energy; they can clean polluted air and water through surfaces of buildings contacting with air and underground water by way of setting on all surfaces of walls of filters with compulsory circulation of polluted air and water (fig. 2).

Natural and improved cultural landscapes are the basis of ecological framework of city, united by “green corridors”, “green wedges” sites of nature of various areas. The ideal ecological framework of city should look like a network with “cells” of nature including all components of natural and cultural landscapes in regular intervals distributed on the area – forests, parks, rivers, lakes, meadows, hollows, heights, squares, gardens and so forth. At their absence, it is necessary to create cultural green corridors that can be accompanied by formation of new “cells” of framework if their area on territory of city is small or if their number is insignificant. Architecturally – constructive ecology contains two complexes of ecology knowledge’s: complex of general knowledge that allows forming the ecological thinking of builders, and complex of special ecology thinking for ecologization of building. Resilient environment of life of person presupposes a presence of conditions providing long, practically endless, satisfaction of essential (prime) and other ecologically well-founded needs necessary for human life, raising quality of the life, forming the harmonious social environment. For achievement of ecological equilibrium and high quality environment of life, it is necessary to keep ecologically well-founded territory of nature in all its biodiversity, to change interaction of person and technologies with nature. In “zero” ecocity may be used intelligent (“clever”) buildings, patent of A. Tetior, Russia, № 2033126) (fig. 3).

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Fig. 2. “Zero” buildings: a – with use of renewable energy; b – with cleaning of polluted air and water: 1 – overground building;2 – winter garden; 3 – natural ventilation (such as a hood); 4 – solar battery; 5 – receipt of light due to reflecting a venetian blind; 6 – daylight into basement; 7 – computers for receipt of the data from devices (sensors); 8 – trees under building; 9 – solar energy for night illumination; 10 –”living machine” for black water cleaning; 11- thermal pump of system of geothermal heating; 12 – collection of “grey” water; 13 – vertical greenery; 14 – polluted air; 15 – wind turbine; 16 – canal for air;17 – filter; 18 – polluted water; 19 – pump; 20 – perforated pipe; 21 – underground part of building; “A”, “B” – details

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Fig. 3. Plan of intellectual home with the indication of the locations of detectors (sensors) and effectors (executive mechanisms) (a); details (b-d); soil-filled building (e): 1 – external wall; 2 – spray for supply of aerosols; 3 – resistive-strain sensors on bed; 4 – sensor (receiver) of exhaled air; 5 – lighter with color filters; 6 – sensors of weight of body in floor; 7 – photo-resistors in a jamb of door; 8 – mirror; 9 – transmitting color TV camera; 10 – supply of medicinal additives in potable water; 11 – wash-bowl; 12 – display with conclusion of the data on a recommended diet and a healthy way of life; 13 – the sensors in “clever” toilet; 14 – tube for introduction of medicinal additives in water in douche and in bath; 15 – thermovision camera; 16 – equipment for control by method Kirlian – effect; 17 – system of executive mechanisms; 18 – microprocessor; 19 – loudspeaker; 20 – sensors of blood pressure and heartbeat; 21 – resistive-strain sensors in sitting of armchair; 22 – microphone; 23 – sensors of shuffling in floor; 24 – sources of light; 25 – green roof; 26 – soil in vertical canals; 27 – various sensors on floors

The intelligent (“clever”) buildings supervise constantly through system of sensors the condition of the external and internal environment and at deviation of parameters from norm includes the effectors clearing, for example, environment from pollution, or improving other parameters. The “clever” building should create optimum conditions for people, which are in it. Automatic sensors serve for support of normal physical and psychophysiological conditions of people environment. Such building contains sensors (converters), located in places of the best selection of the information on parameters of physical and psychophysiological conditions of people (they determine blood pressure, frequency of breath and heartbeat, a timbre and loudness of a voice, a condition and color of iris of the eyes, weight and growth of the person etc.). They transmit these parameters in the computer. The computer analyzes normal and current parameters based on medical expert system (MES) and at deviation from norm, it signals about the beginning of illnesses. The computer gives out signals on the executive mechanisms (on the basis of the data incorporated in memory) giving in rooms medical aerosols and the appropriate additives for smells; medicinal additives in potable water, in water for douche or bath; creating necessary (raised or lowered) temperature and humidity indoors; giving out on the monitor in kitchen the recommendation for a meal; cut-in appropriate (the soothing or stimulating) music, appropriate holographic or other pictures on walls; it allows to support in due time health of the person and to remove a psychological pressure.

Conclusion

The building of ecological cities, providing high-quality living environment, satisfying the environmentally well-founded needs and not polluting the nature is a centuries-old dream of humanity. A theory of ecocity creation is being developed now; its volume of realization limited in different regions of the World. Creation and implementation of the theory of ecocity (“ecocitylogy”) is complicated by the development of global and local ecological crisis, traditional development of entropy engineering and technologies, continued pollution and displacement of nature, many undecided environmental and social problems. Ecocitylogy is science of future. Undoubtedly, the “zero” ecocities and ecobuildings are the attractive future of humanity. New scientific complex may help to form new ecological thinking of future specialists – authors of “zero” ecocities. All-embracing ecologization of all directions of people activity may be the basis of creation of future realistic ecocities.