For most people, tourism is associated with relaxation, new experiences, fun. He is firmly entrenched in human life with its natural desire to discover and learn different places, monuments of nature, history and culture, customs and traditions of different peoples. The last decades marked intensive development of tourism and recreation sphere, due to economic, environmental and social needs of society. A high profitability of this direction, the possibility of obtaining investments during starting a business, small costs of opening new work places determine the economic component; need to restore health, vitality of people in a clean environment through the reduction of dangerous living space determine ecological component; the population growth of the planet, its cultural level, prosperity, expansion of the range of needs that include the desire for a healthy lifestyle, active recreation determine social component .
Different kind of presupposition preceded the birth and development of ecological tourism. Among them increasing due to mass tourism anthropogenic stress on natural, cultural and historical tourist resources is the leading role.
Ecological tourism is a complex, interdisciplinary field, which integrates the interests of tourism, conservation and culture, and its role can be substantial .
One of the problems of ecological tourism is to teach people, to love and respect nature, to understand its laws, to treat it consciously and carefully. Tourist hotels, campsites, resorts that are situated among untouched nature and where people attend ecological problems attention, preservation of natural landscape and cultural heritage, are becoming more popular and attract new, eco-conscious and experienced travelers.
Ecological tourism appeared on the basis of the demand for untouched corners of nature with a purpose without violating the integrity of ecosystems to get an idea of the natural, cultural and ethnographic features of this territory, must be created such economic conditions in which nature conservation is beneficial to the local population.
Ecological tourism includes several key criteria: the main attracting tourists attractions are natural sight (flora, fauna, geological features). The features of the cultural environment are the next most important component. the emphasis is on the study and understanding of resources per se, and the activities of tourists and other participants has a mild effect on the physical and cultural environment in the visited region. Ecological tourism must be interconnected with the concept of sustainable tourism without exceeding recreational capacity of the visited areas, and must be acceptable to local communities and supporting them. The ecological tourism must satisfy wish and stimulate communication with nature, prevent negative impacts on nature and culture and encourage tour operators and tourists to promote the protection of nature and social and economic development .
Ecological tourism became an independent type of tourism. It is based on natural, historical and cultural potential of country or region, including natural features, socio-cultural environment with traditions and customs, peculiarities of everyday activities.
Methods and methodology of research
Belgorod region is Chernozem recreational area. The climate in general is relatively favourable for tourism and is characterized as moderately comfortable. The region has a rich recreational potential, stable political environment, a variety of historical and cultural heritage, which contributes to the development of ecological tourism.
The program of weekend tour in the reserve “Natural and antropogenic territory of the region”
– ingathering group;
– the road (2 – 2.5 hours)
– preparation of equipment, instruction;
– Hiking popular scientific excursion through the nature reserve “Belogorye” plot “Yamskaya steppe”;
– supper, evening bonfire, discussion about visiting reserve.
– excursion on mining and processing plant;
– examination of the pit of Lebedinsky GOK;
– a visiting to the active tailing pit of the Lebedinsky GOK;
– supper, discussion about anthropogenic impact of human activities.
– ingathering camps;
– return route to Belgorod.
The Belgorod region has a fairly high tourist and recreational potential. There are unique natural and recreational resources, objects of national cultural and historical heritage are an important economic, cultural, social and sporting events. Analyzing resources for the development of tourism in the Belgorod region, we note the enormous potential of this opportunity in the region. Belgorod region has the richest sources of spiritual, moral, aesthetic and artistic culture. Cultural heritage was created over many centuries, cultivated, enriched, passed down from generation to generation. The region is one of the most attractive tourist regions of Russia. There are 2000 thousand monuments of history and culture, including 908 archaeological, 245 monuments of architecture, 745 monuments of military glory in the Belgorod region. There are 35 monuments of history and culture of Federal value. Unique natural areas of the region combined in the state nature reserve “Belogorie” [4–6].
Tourists can visit the tour ecological paths and trails On territory of the Belgorod region. Modern techniques to create training and educational ecological paths and routes can be used for the design and justification of ecological routes. In the development and design of environmental routes takes into account various factors: physical-geographical and social and historical properties of the site which develop tourism product, age, professional, ethno-psychological nature of the group that directed tourism product, qualification of guides, investment opportunities development ecological tourism. In the region there are a number of popular ecotourism routes, which, unfortunately, have little demand and poor informational cover [7–9].
Results of research and their discussion
In this article we want to propose a new weekend tour, in borders of especially protected natural territories of the nature reserve “Belogorye”, “Yamskaya steppe”. This tour is one of the types of ecological tourism, which is called “Tour of natural and antropogenic territory of the region”. It is a journey associated with knowledge of the natural environment (Table).
Typically, such a developed tour represent a set of educational, popular scientific and thematic tours through the specially equipped ecological trails. Designed tour does not require much time and special skills, This tour is for the unprepared traveler with an active lifestyle aged 18 – 45 years.
The number of tourists in the group is about 15 people. It is anticipated that this weekend tour will be in the spring and summer season. The price includes: transfer by bus from the Belgorod and back, rent of tourist equipment (tent, sleeping bag), meals, services of guides, cooks and medical insurance.
Weekend tour “Natural and antropogenic territory of the region” will contribute to the development of ecological tourism in the region, tourists can learn about the unique natural and human territories, and the travel agency will be able to increase the efficiency of its activities. the travel agency now offers a variety of routes. Our offer includes a full ecological and popular science weekend tour that covers all the natural splendor of the Belgorod region, where the journey will be an unforgettable trip, a discovery which will stimulate the development of tourism industry in the region and solve the problem of the narrow orientation of travel companies.