The article discusses the social type, which became widespread in the Russian system of government in the XVIII century – “Random people” or “noble in the case”, implemented through the institution of favoritism. The author argues that the analysis of the personality, the historian must study the social type of personality typing methods of the social, as can be identified in the individual belonging to a particular social group, the so-called typical features. The author notes that the spread in the Russian system of government in the XVIII century. received social type – “noble in the case” implemented through the institution of favoritism.
Social personality type consists of two elements. The first is the social status of the individual and the social role associated with it. Social status and role of the individual associated with the personality and activities depend on the situation in the society. The second principle is the relation of the individual to his social status and their social roles. Thus, according to the Marxist approach, the main type of social criteria – class, party, personal characteristics.
This assertion will be proved on the example of a social type, which became widespread in the Russian system of government in the XVIII century. – “Random people” or “noble in the case”, implemented through the institution of favoritism.
Note: the word “noble” comes from the dialect “Velma” (“parts”), which means “very” and the verb “Mozhayev”, ie be able to, respectively, “nobleman” – a person who has a high status, power, has great power in the state and society. In turn, “noble in the case” – an imperious man, who is in favor, to “favor” the emperor.
Favorit had no definite legal status. However, the Russian reality proves that the absolutist state system was a favorite of the most effective, was more than close to the emperor. Favorite usually was in close relationship with the monarch, and as a result was able to dispose of part of his absolute power.
Another way can be to present the main characteristics of favoritism:
– Favoritism – a special tool in the state system of government in the epoch of absolutism;
– Favorites appointed to high public office, on the basis of personal interest of the monarch in the activities of a person, often breaking the utilities rules for public office according to the “Table of Ranks”.
Thus, the favorite was a type of “accidental person” in the system of supreme state power in Russia in the XVIII century. At the same time, having a certain personal qualities, such as: the ability to take risks, the state intuition, initiative, desire to serve the monarch and the Fatherland, a favorite of the state to carry out its activities in accordance with the objective needs of the vast Russia. Also note that often the favorite could make a significant contribution to the development of the Russian Empire.
Occupying an important position, favorites have tremendous power, they have played a huge role in public decision-making. It is known that Anna could not even take a step without its most famous favorite Biron, who had a huge influence on the Empress, who did not have their own views on the development of the Russian Empire. Of course, favorites do not always pursue mercantile interests, sometimes guided by sincere feelings for the monarchy. How, for example, A.D. Menshikov – favorite of Peter I, who not only sought to realize personal interests, but also to work for the benefit of the state.
It should be noted that the modern historical science practically studying the phenomenon of favoritism itself. The most important may be assumed to be a modern Russian historian O.P. Volodkova “Favoritism XVIII century in Russia” [2, p. 47–64], where the example of well-known figures – Alexander Menshikov, E.I. Biron, Peter Shuvalov, A.I. Osterman, G.A. Potemkin, historian attempts to discover the essence of the phenomenon of favoritism. The same approach to the study of favoritism is characteristic of the work of other contemporary scholar I.V. Volkova [1, p. 327–377]. Both researchers determined favoritism through a link personality and power. They conclude that the favorite, thanks to personal connections with the sovereign, receives a portion of its power. In particular, Volodkov O. P. connects the phenomenon of favoritism to the evolution of absolutism and the approval in the economic life of Russia signs of a market economy. The historian says that “favoritism, opportunism, etc. go hand in hand with selfish aspirations, they are based on not only the satisfaction of any particular claim, but also a certain economic interest” [2, p. 47– 64]. O.P. Volodkov does not exclude, in general, the progressive influence of individuals in the history of Russia.
In a study of favoritism is not less important is the work of another well-known contemporary Russian historian – I.V. Kurukin . Historian links appearance following the strengthening of the Institute of the sovereign power in the second half of the XVII century, namely: “At first the Romanovs favoritism in Russia was impossible. Firstly, a new dynasty, not got stronger after the great Troubles, at least until the middle of the XVII century was under the tutelage of heavy Zemsky Sobor, gathered more or less regularly. Secondly, it existed until 1682 archaic system of localism greatly limited the arbitrariness of the king in the appointment of the administrative and military command posts. When in the second half of the century strengthened the autocracy, the emperor began to appear influential advisers-favorites” .
Compare the favorite with ordinary civil servants. The results of the comparison are: becoming a favorite, as a rule, violating the principles of ordinary military service, but at the same time he was a favorite of the principle of operation of the absolutist state. A civil servant – a man who has reached a certain position, having passed all the stages prescribed in the “Table of Ranks” receiving nation-wide solutions in virtue of their office.
Thus, the favorite – is a type of “random person”. However, not every random person could make a brilliant career in the public service in the first half of XVIII century., So we can conclude that a career is following or “nobles in the case” was formed not only due to its proximity to the emperor, but because of their personal qualities, and possibly to certain talents. Characterized “noble in the case”, first of all, that an ordinary person becomes a senior official accident, bypassing all the steps of the career ladder. It should be noted that the nobles have a huge impact on the rulers in exchange for the considerable fee. However, the fate of the nobles is relatively short – the reign of the Emperor; and then there are new favorites from the new head of state. Also note that the “noble in the case of” domestic, ie “His”, (as, for example, A.D. Menshikov) did not cause resentment on the part of the public, as opposed to a foreign nobleman (such as E.I. Biron), as the latter are not linked their fate with Russia, thinking only about how to quickly “get-away” from here. Biron – remained alien to Russian “nobleman in the case”. And this fact is quite understandable, since Biron, being close to the Empress cared about replacing the Germans all the prominent places in the administration, what caused indignation of Russian officials. Man totally insignificant according to his abilities and wicked by nature, but a trusted favorite of Anne Biron interfered in all management matters, although he had no public opinion, no program of activities and the slightest acquaintance with the Russian way of life and people. Biron despised Russian and deliberately drove all Russian. The sole purpose of it was his own enrichment, only concern – the consolidation of its position in the court and in the state.