Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

ANTI-CORRUPTION POLICY IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Shorokhov V.E. 1
1 Siberian Institute of Management - a branch of the Presidential RANHiGS
In this article the author examines one of the most relevant problems of modern Russian society – corruption, the methods and mechanisms of fighting corruption and the role of anti-corruption education in the system of corruption offenses prevention, analyzes the importance of anti-corruption education in the training of state and municipal employees. We present a number of ways for improving anti-corruption education.
In this article the author examines one of the most relevant problems of modern Russian society – corruption, the methods and mechanisms of fighting corruption and the role of anti-corruption education in the system of corruption offenses prevention, analyzes the importance of anti-corruption education in the training of state and municipal employees. We present a number of ways for improving anti-corruption education.
corruption
anti-corruption activities
anti-corruption education
sense of justice
rule of law
1. Bykovskaja N.V. Analysis of the experience of anti-corruption policy of the Nordic countries (for example, public administration “Good Governce” concept // The practice of combating corruption in Russia and abroad: current realities and prospects: Materials 4 (Lat) All-Russian scientific-practical conference, 10–11 December 2012 / Ministry of science and the image of Russia, Kazan State technological university. Kazan: KNITU, 2013. – P. 81.
2. Nosakova E.S. The role of education in the formation of anti-corruption legal consciousness of students // Legal peace. 2012. – № 4. – P. 63–65.
3. Federal law of December 25, 2008 N 273-FZ “On Fighting Corruption” (in red. on 03.07.2016) // SZ the Russian Federation. 2008. N 52 (ch. I). Art. 6228; 2012. N 53 (ch. I). Art. 7605.

This topic is one of the most serious, since corruption is a widespread phenomenon, undermining not only the authority of state bodies, but also threatening decay of society as a whole.

An important area of formation of anti-corruption behavior of citizens is anti-corruption education, which should include the distribution of ideas of intolerance to corruption manifestations among the various sectors of population, bringing the benefits of good behavior that affects the well-being of every citizen of Russia. To ensure positive outcome such education must be systematic. Therefore, in addition to general education, it is important to conduct informational and educational activities with specific content for specific target audiences.

Anti-corruption education should include not only knowledge of the normative legal acts of the Russian Federation and foreign states, but also allow students to independently evaluate the level of the negative effects of corrupt practices applied to the state and society. This aspect will allow to implement in practice the foundations of law and order.

Particular attention should be paid to the constituent elements of corruption and corrupt practices.

In accordance with the provisions of the Federal Law from December 25, 2008 № 273-FZ “On Fighting Corruption” [3], a corruption is understood as malpractice, giving and taking bribes, abuse of power, commercial bribery or other illegal use of a natural person of his official provisions contrary to the legitimate interests of society and the state in order to obtain benefits in the form of money, valuables, other property or property services, other property rights for themselves or for third parties, or illegal provision of such benefits to a specified person by other individuals, as well as the commission of these acts on behalf of or for the benefit of the legal person.

Thus, corrupt activities include various types of offenses. Accordingly, the anti-corruption education should be sufficiently diverse and include not only the knowledge of the legal and regulatory framework governing the responsibility for offenses in this category.

First of all, one need to pay attention to the formation and development of legal thinking and legal awareness among state and municipal employees, as this category present the immediate area of corruption risks.

The peculiarity of corruption in Russia, first of all, is the legal culture, legal consciousness of society, the mentality and distaste for authority that evolved over a long period of time.

Also negative impact bring absence of social control, accessibility and transparency of information, especially the instability of the economy (of raw nature), social injustice, trampling on moral principles and values, etc.

Here, attention should be paid to the experience of the Nordic countries (Finland, Sweden, Norway, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Austria, and others.) with a low level of corruption.

These foreign countries are characterized by high levels of economy, highly educated society, promotion of basic human rights, gender equality, openness of information, etc.

N.V. Bykovskaja notes that the main feature of anti-corruption concept of Scandinavian countries is management, which is reflected in the action of certain mechanisms, processes and institutions through which citizens can exercise their rights, freedoms and legitimate interests. In the above mentioned countries there exist a so-called concept of “good governance”, which is expressed in ensuring the citizens’ participation in decision-making, freedom of association and speech, integrity and impartiality of the control structures, revenue transparency, decisions, actions, strategic vision problems, timely response to the needs of citizens, balance of interests, equity, efficiency and effectiveness of all decisions, accountability of the various structures of the public authorities. “Good governance” is strongly connected with the developed system of ethical values, which should be observed by government officials and ordinary citizens [1].

Thus, we can conclude the feasibility of development in Russia, as part of anti-corruption education in the system of training of state and municipal employees – legal awareness, enhancement of importance of the moral and ethical principles, social activity education and the creation of conditions to ensure the openness of information.

It is necessary to introduce special subjects, the contents of which will reflect the fundamentals of professional conduct, the code of ethics of state and municipal employee. For example, deontology – the science of the profession. Special course designed on the basis of this discipline, will include the rules and principles of conduct of professional entities.

It is also necessary to pay attention to the substantive part of the training of state and municipal employees, in terms of training and development of normative legal acts and regulations meeting the requirements of anti-corruption expertise.

In this case we are talking about the training of specialists in the field of rule-making, taking into account the features of anti-corruption expertise, which will continue to develop capacity of public authorities and local self-government.

Thus, given the current relevance and necessity to conduct anti-corruption expertise of normative legal acts, special course for training a also needed.

These measures will form the legal thinking and prepare students for practical work.

Based on the above stated, it can be concluded that the anti-corruption expertise of normative legal acts requires a lot of expertise in the field of fighting corruption, as well as in law, linguistics. Therefore, the development and the inclusion of these special courses in the training of state and municipal employees, will allow in the future the most efficiently identify corruption-factors, as well as to assess corruption capacity of certain provisions of laws and regulations, will contribute to the formation of special methods and means to combat corruption offenses.

It is also necessary to pay attention to the formation of anti-corruption legal awareness among students.

Anti-corruption consciousness has specific features that distinguish it from other kinds of legal senses of justice, specifically for this type of justice is typical: clear understanding of intolerant attitudes and commitment to anti-corruption as a phenomenon, knowledge of legal mechanisms to counter corrupt practices and the foundations of the state anti-corruption policy.

In accordance with the division of legal consciousness on the types, depending on the level it is proposed to identify different kinds of anti-corruption sense of justice, namely, anti-corruption everyday consciousness and anti-corruption professional legal conscience, characterized by a number of features due to the specifics of activities.

Anti-corruption legal conscience is formed under influenced of the system of factors, directly or indirectly affecting it.

Anti-corruption legal conscience is formed by two groups of factors: general and special.

General factors – objective (family, communication circle; economic, political, social and legal attitudes prevalent in the society (public opinion); legal education (in the broader sense); state-legal system of the country; economic and social situation in the country; education, profession, place of residence, etc.) and subjective (social and legal activity of the individual; its ideological aspects (namely the social and legal orientation on religion, notions of justice, consciousness of rights and duties of a man, of permissions and prohibitions) etc.).

Special factor is anti-corruption education, which is focused on formation of anti-corruption conscience and influencing it through the implementation of a system of anti-corruption education at different levels. [2]

Thus, the necessary condition for the formation of students’ anti-corruption legal conscience is the introduction into the study programs of special courses, the development of special disciplines on anti-corruption expertise of legal acts, the introduction of special courses on the basics of professional conduct and activities of state and municipal employees.

And here, the anti-corruption education acts as a separate area of the state anti-corruption policy that will allow to fully use preventive measures in the fight against corruption.