Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

LEGAL EDUCATION OF STUDENTS IN THE MODERN EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS: PROBLEMS AND SOME SOLUTIONS

Tretyakov A.L. 1
1 North-West Management Institute – a branch of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration the President of the Russian Federation; FGBOU IN “Saint-Petersburg State Institute of Culture”
In this article, the author raises the problem of legal education of students in contemporary educational organization. It described the situation in the state educational policy. Noted the trends in modern school education. The necessity of legal education of today’s students. Presented by one of the possible solutions to this problem.
legal education
modern educational organization
students
education reform
the FGOS
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In the context of the transformation underway in the modern conditions of life of the Russian society occupies an important place state social policy.

In recent years, the reform of the entire education system in Russia is given the ever-increasing attention. According to the Russian Federation President Vladimir Putin, the main policy of the state in this direction is the transformation of education and good training “in the main social elevator in the society, the main criterion of respect for the man, which allows people to succeed”.

With that said, you can identify some of the main directions of the state social policy in education:

  • widespread transition of secondary schools for the exam (the unified state exam) as a standardized final exams in all schools in the country;
  • development of educational programs in accordance with international standards for the recognition of documents on Russian education abroad;
  • implementation of the provisions of the Government of Russia signed the Bologna agreement by transferring all Russian universities on a two-tier system of higher education with a view to integration into the European educational space; encouraging personal responsibility of each individual in an effort to get a quality general and higher professional education.

Currently, Russia is trying to regain lost ground in science, the field of education technology. This is due to the fact that the 90’s as a result of the collapse of a single state, and the dramatic events. XX century Russian society has undergone destructive processes. To a large extent they have affected the educational system, which until recently was one of the best in the world. Make a technological breakthrough and innovation of our country, it can only be given the modern requirements to the quality of education.

Note that, in general, developed by the state authorities in the field of education policy includes as an essential component of the education of the individual tasks.

B Currently, education is defined as a purposeful process of education and training in the interests of man, society and the state. In this process, a primary place is given to the interests of the individual, taking into account the need to create conditions for self-realization. In the era of global economic, political and cultural integration and unification, development and self-realization are the key concepts of upbringing and education process, which, in turn, becomes a kind of trend direction over, expressed in terms of the – self-realization, self-education, self-learning, self-education [1, p. 165].

Consider regulatory sources governing the need for legal education in modern school.

Presidential Decree of 06.07.1995, № 673 “On the development of the concept of legal reform in the Russian Federation” has set the development of legal education system as one of the basic elements of the concept of judicial reform and the priorities of legal support of a number of major directions of formation and functioning of the Russian state, and the development of a full-fledged civil society [7].

One of the main functions that are created as part of the Vision 2020 on the basis of public libraries centers of access to legal and other socially significant information (public legal information centers / community access centers – PCPI/DPC) is a legal education. In other words, the subject of legal education, including in the framework of the PCPI element as part of the model of multifunctional cultural and leisure facilities of club type in small towns and rural areas with the use of modern information and communication technology may well be realized. But it should be noted that this provision Concept 2020 is set out in the section regulating the long-term development of the sphere of culture and nothing to do with education and other areas of social and economic development of the country.

Basics of the state policy of Russia in the sphere of legal literacy and legal awareness of citizens declared that the development of the rule of law, formation of civil society and the strengthening of national reconciliation in Russia require a high legal culture, without which it cannot be fully realized such basic values and principles of society, as the rule of law, human priority of his inalienable rights and freedoms, to ensure reliable protection of the public interest.

According to Art. 15 Fundamentals defines the main directions of state policy in the area under consideration:

1) legal education and legal awareness of citizens;

2) the development of legal education and upbringing of the younger generation in educational institutions at various levels through the introduction in the educational process of training courses, programs, teaching materials, ensuring the acquisition of knowledge in the field of law and a number of others.

A significant development for the purposes of legal education is an art. 19 basis as determined by the development of highly moral person, dividing the Russian traditional spiritual values, having relevant knowledge and skills to realize their potential in today’s society, ready for the peaceful creation and defense of the homeland.

The adopted strategy of development of education for the period up to 2025 is intended to form the younger generation of information and legal culture, and the development of justice adequately.

Legal mechanisms of implementation of the Strategy include among others the development of mediation tools to resolve potential conflicts among children and as part of the educational process, as well as in the implementation of the activities of other organizations working with children.

In our opinion, one of the mechanisms for the implementation of normative and legal documents given above can be created centers of legal and other socially significant information on the basis of libraries of educational institutions [1, 2, 3].

It is assumed that created on the basis of school libraries centers of legal and other socially significant information will be a new direction in the implementation of the federal state educational standards, as well as act as a supporting infrastructure elements for solving the problems of information support of gifted pupils and teachers.

It should be noted that the centers of legal and other socially significant information on the basis of school libraries is the mechanism of implementation of the Concept 2020 of the creation of public centers of legal, business, environmental, and other information on the basis of libraries (PCPI Program) [8].

It is because of such centers can educate the active members of the Russian and Russian-speaking community, including in the cyberspace environment, with room to solve the problems of formation of information and legal culture, as an essential knowledge necessary for all those involved in building the rule of law, information and civil society .

In other words, in our view, these centers will be able to help form a harmoniously developed personality with critical thinking and a sufficient level of information and legal culture that today is an important aspect in the education of the modern younger generation [2, 3].

SHTSPI – TSPIOO (legal information centers of educational institutions) can actually become a basic platform of All-Russian public and state children and youth organization “Russian movement of pupils” in schools and can contribute to the creation of the formation of the younger generation of educational potential mechanisms, as well as various aspects of personality, in including the formation of spirituality and morality.

In order to create mechanisms for the implementation of the Strategy of education development in the Russian Federation for the period up to 2025 through increased efficiency on the basis of school libraries activity of legal information centers in a network format it seems advisable to begin to coordinate their activities in the form of creating a nationwide network model school centers, logically linked with the already existing networks of legal information centers and centers of public access, created on the basis of public libraries to implement Vision 2020 and Strategy of information society (public access points format), as well as, possibly multiple access points, set up on the basis of post offices to implement legislation communication [4].

The turn of XX–XXI centuries marked by the effervescence of Russian philosophical thought, in particular, in the bowels of the Institute of Human RAS Nikolai Alexandrovich Nosov has been put forward and proved the theory, later received the name virtualistics. The development of the theory involved a specialized Center of the Institute. The main provisions of the theory are the following:

The basic idea on which to build virtualistics is the idea of coexistence of virtual and real objects and phenomena that influence each other, but do not merge into a common reality.

The world is changing and changing understanding of the world by man. For example, in the last 30 years, there are new approaches in the field of life thinking, and scientific data. For example, synergy, ecology, etc. There were and are experiencing rapid flowering – information technologies, created new profession and changed many of the scientific and practical activities;

The theory N. Nosov proves that the world is largely virtual. Virtualistics makes it possible to conceptualize philosophically virtuality, to make it the subject of scientific research and practical reforms.

Virtualistics – this is not a branch of scientific knowledge, and the type of worldview. This outlook does not deny the traditional philosophy and science. Virtualistics introduces additional world of reality and, therefore, offers a new view of the world.

Virtual reality, regardless of its nature. The physical, psychological, social, biological, technical, etc., has the following properties: begotten, relevance, autonomy, interactivity. It is necessary to stop on the comments, which modern scientists (Mikhailov A.N., Genisaretsky O.I., Nosov T.V.) give each of the properties:

  • Begotten. Virtual reality is produced by the activity of any other reality external to it. For example, the development of computer technology has created a virtual reality – the Internet.
  • Relevance. Virtual reality, there is only ”here and now”, but is active generating reality. Any virtual reality, such as a novel in letters between two lovers can be stopped. Ends correspondence, and this virtual connection between the two men end with correspondence. For example, the American film “You’ve Got Mail”, directed by Nora Ephron is a fine example. Two people in the correspondence and in life have completely different relations. The anonymous correspondence – is to understand and respect each other people who each letter become closer to each other, but in real life – it’s rivals and enemies. Their virtual life exists quite independently and in many respects even in contradiction with reality. According to the laws of the genre melodrama ends happy ending – virtual and real life merge and there is a new reality, where the characters are quite different from the previous social and professional roles.
  • Autonomy. In virtual reality, the time, space and the laws of existence (each has its own virtual reality “nature”). Pictures from this provision may be Facebook, or rather its pages that are librarians. Very calm, quiet people can say on Facebook pages are ardent fighters for the idea. They arise supporters and opponents. In general, there is a virtual life in most of its manifestations. Pages different librarians and library communities have different professional, emotional, due to different pictures and graphics – even a different design. Each page on Facebook – is a separate state with its own laws and regulations.
  • Interactivity. Virtual reality can interact with all the other realities, including a generator, which is confirmed by the basics of ontology – the doctrine of common categories and patterns of life, the existence of the unity of laws, the theory of knowledge and logic. A very good example in this regard can serve as a federal target program “Electronic Russia”. At the time of creation of the project of the program we assumed certain functions and activities that will be implemented with it. However, when the program was launched, and its implementation involved a significant number of people from different regions – this virtual reality has found another life and in many other functions than assumed its ideologists and developers. The program was developed under the program, which differs from the planned, that, according to experts – led her to a standstill [3, p. 10].

In virtualistics considered two types of realities – the constant reality, such as scientific and technological progress, the development of electronics and virtual reality – the Internet generated by the progress of the development. These realities are considered as independent philosophical categories which do not come into opposition with each other, that is the reality that gave rise to the virtual world does not conflict with it. In turn, the virtual world is not intended to affect the reality created it. Some sociologists believe that the virtual world is largely influenced by the realities of the world of natural, especially on its youth sector, but this phenomenon is quite a different nature, it exists, it has not been denied, but to say that the Internet has influenced the development of scientific and technological progress, specifically, the electronics – it is impossible. Here you can talk only about the one-sided influence. The development of scientific and technical progress, in particular electronics, affect the virtual environment of the Internet, in turn, the virtual Internet environment for the development of scientific and technological progress does not have any direct impact. Invalid understand virtuality like unreality (possibility, the illusory nature of potentiality, imagination, etc.), there is another reality of virtuality. In virtualistics assumed the existence of two types of reality: the virtual and constant, – all of which are equally real [7, 8, 9].

From the standpoint of virtualisticheskogo world of legal information centers are one entity that is able to generate virtual worlds pupils to meet their spiritual, cognitive and aesthetic needs. And paradoxically it sounds – to become a serious alternative to the Internet and other customary entertainment schoolchildren. It should again be emphasized that the “virtual” in this context means not remote, and temporary and not fixed rigidly to any traditional form of intra-operation.

Modern Students grow in an era of active use of various gadgets which take them into virtual worlds. Students who are part of lesson system respond to teacher questions posed, and the expression of opinion should be left to the change or after school, these students can respond positively to the emergence of multi-functional, including communication and recreational area inside the school.

Confirmation of this hypothesis are the school with a strong student government. For example, a school, where the school parliament, school press center, school club – is a comfortable environment for self-expression and maturation make it possible to assume that the centers of legal and other socially significant information (if you call them more attractive to students name), it is also may become a medium of interpersonal communication, social place to obtain new knowledge and skills.

If you break away from the pattern, you cannot turn the activity of legal information centers in mandatory tutoring for students in legal disciplines. From the traditional areas of work with electronic resources – legal information center may become actual cinema club, the informal leader of a school, center for informal education, that is the place where the school provides students additional opportunities for self-development and self-education, communications. That’s imagine legal education D.S. Likhachev and N.I. Eliasberg [5, 6].

Personal development of human rarely occurs only in the silence of the academic lesson or library room. In this age, it requires the ability to express themselves in a variety of active forms, including as a voluntary assistant, creator, mentor, protector. Popularity or unpopularity of the Center of Legal and other socially important information and activities on legal education depends, in our view, only on two points:

1. If a school librarian and teachers who are interested in legal education, own or borrowed ideas, both traditional, everyday to do interesting and important personality.

2. Students in the center of legal and other socially significant information is actively involved in the choice of forms of work, not only do the job, or pre-cooked orders.

They are equal participants in the discussion and selection of the most interesting topics and trends, and on the basis of collective choice determining the vector of the center of legal and other socially important information. For example, legal and other socially significant information could be named “Talk. Discussion. Debate”. In such a center is possible even with the involvement of students and young professionals from universities and non-governmental organizations can learn how to debate, to be a referee (judge), to learn how to organize a debate among the younger students, etc. A subject of particular debate or discussion will be ethical and legal, which means that a very wide.

The value of creating a network of centers of legal and other socially significant information on the basis of school libraries will be that they will all be different. And, therefore, from the center to the center will be transferred not only the resources that are available today is any center, but will be transferred to the experience, techniques, approaches, solutions of pedagogical problems, that is, everything that is the essence of teaching.

Сenters Networking can help solve another problem, which we mentioned at the beginning, that is, the creation of conditions for the separation of children from immersed in the virtual world. By offering students something unusual and interesting in the real world, and even with the possibility for self-development and self-expression.

In the second stage, when students get information, entertainment or any other purged (movie, concert, play, debate), you can hold a competition between the centers, networked one set theme that each center will disclose specific means for him.

We must not forget that the center of legal and other socially significant information is based on the school library. Therefore, the first theme that can serve as a tool to introduce teachers and students from different centers and from different schools – can become the theme of “Read – it is fashionable” or vice versa – “It is fashionable – to read”.

Thus, in our opinion, one of the solutions to the legal education of students the school can become a center of legal information, organized on the basis of the school library. Note that the importance and necessity of the structure caused by the requirements of modern standards, as well as time.