Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

INFLUENCE OF THE PERIOD OF SOWING ON YIELD OF SILPHIUM PERFOLIATUM

Danilov K.P. 1
1 Chuvash State Agricultural Academy
In Akmola region of Northern Kazakhstan under irrigation Silphium perfoliatum L. has a high yield – up to 87,2…88,4 t/ha of green mass in the amount of 2 mowing. With the years there has been a convergence in the value of the yield of green mass and harvest of dry matter for different variants of sowing of culture. In the year of sowing leaf-stem mass fees are low, and the highest yield of green mass of culture is celebrated on 3...4 years of life. The best times of Silphium sowing is late autumn and early spring. When sowing seeds in the summer time the mass of leaves and stems is decreased.
Silphium perfoliatum
yield
fertilizer
terms of sowing
1. Amirkhanov N., Hamdan I.H., Umurzakov A.U. About the introduction of Silphium perfoliatum in the conditions of Uzbekistan // Materials of all-Union meeting on the technology of cultivation of new crops. – Saratov-Engels, 1978. – Part 2. – P. 68–70.
2. Bakhmat N., Drachuk D.D. Silphium perfoliatum is a promising forage crop in the Khmelnitsky region of the Ukrainian // Ecological analysis of fodder plants of natural flora, introduction and usage: materials of VII all-Union Symposium on new forage plants. – Syktyvkar, 1990. – P. 18–19.
3. Ievlev N.I. Silphium perfoliatum is in terms of peat soils // Materials of all-Union meeting on the technology of cultivation of new crops. – Saratov, 1978. – Part 2. – P. 78.
4. Makarova A.N. Productivity and quality of crops of Silphium perfoliatum is depending on agricultural practices // Materials of all-Union meeting on the technology of cultivation of new crops. – Saratov-Engels, 1978. – Part 2. – P. 80–81.
5. Rata L.J. Biological characteristics of growing of Silphium perfoliatum is in the Latvian // Materials of all-Union meeting on the technology of cultivation of new crops. – Saratov, 1978. – P. 85–86.

In Akmola region of Northern Kazakhstan under irrigation Silphium perfoliatum L. has a high yield – up to 87,2…88,4 t/ha of green mass in the amount of 2 mowing. With the years there has been a convergence in the value of the yield of green mass and harvest of dry matter for different variants of sowing of culture. In the year of sowing leaf-stem mass fees are low, and the highest yield of green mass of culture is celebrated on 3...4 years of life. The best times of Silphium sowing is late autumn and early spring. When sowing seeds in the summer time the mass of leaves and stems is decreased.

Keywords: Silphium perfoliatum, yield, fertilizer, terms of sowing

Silphium perfoliatum L. is a nonconventional culture which yet has not received a wide circulation in our country, and as a whole in the world. Therefore it is important to define optimum terms of sowing with reference to various climatic conditions, zones of cultivation and to other factors.

In the last century N.I. Ievlev found, that in the North of the country on lands of the Republic of Komi Silphium it is advisable to sow in the spring [3]. A.N. Makarova in her research determined that in the southern regions of Kazakhstan is optimum fall sowing date [4]. To the same conclusion on the results of the experiments N. Amirkhanov in Uzbekistan [1], N. Bakhmat and D.D. Drachuk in the Khmelnitsky region of Ukraine [2], Rata L. in Latvia [5] came.

The purpose of our researches was studying influence of term of sowing on yield of Silphium perfoliatum L. Experiences were spent on an irrigated site of the Akmola agrarian university of Republic Kazakhstan. Frequency of experience was 4-fold. The area of an allotment was 25 м2. Crop of Silphium spent with distance 70 sm on depth 1…2 sm. The irrigation, entering of mineral fertilizers was spent to the next years in norm N60P60K90 under the first and second mowing by equal dozes.

Yield of green mass of Silphium perfoliatum, t/ha

Variant

Term of crop

The year of living culture

In total, over 4 years

In an average 4 years

Change to control version (±)

first

second

third

fourth

1

early-spring (control)

6,3

71,1

88,4

81,9

247,7

61,925

2

early-summer

2,4

56,2

83,2

79,6

221,4

55,35

–6,575

3

mid-summer

36,9

65,4

74,4

176,7

44,175

–17,75

4

last-autumn

9,8

83,5

87.2

82,5

263,0

65,75

+3,825

Silphium with norm of 10 kg/hectares were sowed in various terms. Early-spring crop was spent on April, 29th after corresponding preparation of ground. In 2 variant term of seeding in the beginning of summer – on June, 2nd, 3 variant – on July, 15th. In 4 variant sowing was carried out on November, 1st after steady downturn of temperature of ground with that calculation, that seeds in the autumn have not sprouted.

In the first year of a life yield of green weight is insignificant, plants of Silphium perfoliatum during the vegetative period in a year of sowing of seeds developed slowly. At sowing in the middle of summer because of very short vegetative period it was not possible to receive any yield. The height of plants was insufficient for mowing. At 2 variant yield of culture has made the minimal size – 2,4 ton/hectares (Table).

Early-spring crop differs the best development of plants of culture because of the long vegetative period therefore yield of green weight was essentially above, than in 2 and 3 variants and it is equaled 6,3 ton/hectares. At 4 variant seeds of Silphium start to sprout earlier on calendar term, than in all other variants, therefore duration of the vegetative period of plants of Silphium in this variant was the greatest. Accordingly gathering of green weight of culture also was the highest among studied variants – 9,8 ton/hectares. In the second year of a life a degree of development of plants in a year of sowing continues to affect. So, the least gathering of leaves and stalks is received in 3 variant at sowing in the middle of summer – 36,9 ton/hectares. This parameter has increased in 2 variant up to 56,2 ton/hectares. At early-spring sowing yield of green weight was 71,1 ton/hectares. And the maximal gathering of weight of leaves and stalks in 4 variant – 83,5 ton/hectares. In the third year by all variants, except for the third, the highest yield of leaves and stalks is noted. In 1 variant it is equal 88,4 ton/hectares, 2 variant of 83,2 ton/hectares and 4 variant – 87,2 ton/hectares. Only in 3 variant the maximal gathering of weight of leaves and stalks from investigated years is received for the fourth year of a life – 74,4 ton/hectares. In other embodiments, the yield was slightly lower than in the previous year.

As a whole on the sum of gathering of green weight for 4 years it is least received in 3 variant – 176,6 ton/hectares. At sowing in the beginning of summer total gathering makes already 221,4 ton/hectares or on 45,8 ton/hectares more, than in 3 variant. At early-spring sowing the given parameter is equal 247,7 ton/hectares are on 72,1 ton/hectares more, than in a variant with crop of culture in the middle of the summer period. The maximal result will reach at 4 variant – 263,0 ton/hectares.

Conclusions. At cultivation on silage in conditions of irrigation in Akmola region of Kazakhstan Silphium are recommended to be sowed in the late autumn for 2…3 weeks up to steady frosts or early in the spring in the end of April. If necessary, Silphium can be sown in early June by the stratified seeds. It is undesirable to sow in mid-summer.