The article studies peculiarities of domestic economy, its transition towards informational form, it demonstrates foreign experience and grounds the necessity of a new model of growth for creation of knowledge management system.
As we know, the basic content of economy modernization is increase in quality of state economy regulation, but not neutralization of it. Foreign economists criticize radical-liberal ideas of “Rayganomy” that does not consider human capital as a foundation of new economy, change in capital structure, transition towards network methods of business organization.
In South Korea and China volume of microelectronic components’ output in 300–500 times greater than the same index of Russia, and 4–5 times greater than volume or automobile production of oil consumption. During the recent 20 years 2–3 generations of technological equipment has changed. Microelectronic digital technics forms up to 85 % of value in the newest equipment, and an average apartment hold over 40 operating microcontrollers, and average automobile – over 30. Russia has to import over 80 % of electronic devices, including those of military purpose. A number of countries limits sales of certain types of microchips to Russia.
Russian economy has approached a transition point. The operating liberal economic strategy is aimed for macroeconomic stability, decrease in inflation and budget deficit. It is achieved through withdrawing money from economy, investing export income into reserve and debtor responsibilities of other state, increase in corporate debt, redistribution of education and healthcare financing into local budgets. Within globally unstable and turbulent economy this strategy has decreased economic growth down to minimum, led to a sharp fall of investment and capital runaway, decrease in business profitability. According to Center of macroeconomic analysis and forecast, in 2013–2015 profitability of sale decreased, and credit debts of population grew over the period of 2008–2014, multiplication effect of state megaprojects fell, 1/4 of investments does not compensate, and their total profitability is lower than credit price and income of placing bank deposits. The basic income is formed not of production, but natural, monopolistic, political-administrative rent that is received by raw material companies and monopolistic intermediaries.
Russia requires a new model of growth (3) that will aimed to establish deficitless budget and decrease in inflation, but first of all – acceleration of economic growth due to increase in volume of strategic investment into modernization of economy. According to S. Glaziev and other economists (2), development of real anti-crisis strategy is impossible within the existing liberal-monetary paradigm. The problem is not solved by free market flow of capitals, especially as Russian banks do not possess sufficient capacity and are speculative, they depend on financial non-residents and are unavailable for the majority of Russian enterprises. Internal market, exposed to pressure of foreign competition, is unable to solve problems of modernizing economy and developing its high-technological sectors without support of purposeful state policy. Commercial banks are unable to grow their capital up the level that will be adequate to needs of real sector.
The main reason of economic growth stagnation is decrease in pace of labour efficiency growth and loss of cheap price for resources that compensated low productivity.
Russia can improve production efficiency dramatically via creating new and liquidating old outdated working places, especially in the area of communal urban and village infrastructure, roads, power industry, machinery construction, agrarian-industrial complex, increase in GPD investment share. These measures will compensate gap between volume of savings and production investment. It requires real social-governmental private partnership that will attract local, not only state and foreign investment, new tools of preferential long-term crediting, development of subfederal and corporate obligation loans, creation of profitable market of dwelling-communal service at the foundation of new technologies and real competition.
According to the presented material, economy of state and municipal sector can expect the following changes in the next several years: new industrialization becomes the main factor of modern economic development in terms of geographical shifts in global economy and change in structure of world economy (5). New industrialization has its principal differences in objectives, methods, and behavior. Its essence lies in transition from mechanized to robotized production.
New industrialization creates innovative strategy for global economy and management system (6). For Western countries new industrialization implies return of production, outsourced to countries with cheap labour, to scientific centers with new robotized base that will provide for a dramatic decrease in laboriousness. At the same time, according to Yale University (USA) (7), firms will transit from output of mass product to limited production and continuous assortment refreshment.
For Russia new industrialization implies creating of new 20–25 million places of work for qualified and well-stimulated labour. Light industry requires fundamental change of material and technical base, introduction into global chains of supply (4). Analysis of structural shifts, trends, and sources of investment (1) shows us perspectives of transforming machine building, military-industrial complex, and sector of service.
A number of publication uses the term “new economy” only in relation to computer building and instrument making, radio electronics, precise machine building, nuclear power industry, accurate chemistry, and other sectors, for which science intake exceeds 5–7 %. At the same time, “new” economy is often studied in conflict with traditional industries: almost all savings, made with oil, mining, and other “old” industries are supposed to be withdrawn and invested into the “new economy”. There is no reason for such contradiction. Oil, light, construction, fish industry can and should become science intensive branches of economy, use modern technologies and methods of organizing production. None of informational products can replace traditional consumer goods.
A special part in transforming state and municipal sector is devoted to transition towards informational economy, economy of knowledge.
Information is transition of biological or material carriers from one subject to another along connection lines. This definition removes or limits the uncertainty of economic activity and making economic decisions at micro and macrolevel. Information becomes the basic productive resource.
The list of major characteristics of informational economy includes:
– transformation of new knowledge, information, methods of their efficient implementation into the main form of social wealth;
– transition to complex-automatized and computer-assisted production with minimum of environmental pollution;
– growth in human capital value, thorough development of abilities and initiative of workers, their attitude to work;
– continuous refreshment of product assortment, technology, organization of output, labour, and management;
– transformation of service sector and science-intensive branches of production into the sector of employment and GDP;
– globalization and internationalization of production, creating world market of consumer goods, capital, information, and labour technology;
– creation of information banks in all branches of knowledge and types of employment, accessible directly from a workplace or dwelling.
The necessity of state regulation in the area of informational technology is defined by uneven access to modern informational-communicative technologies and products in different countries and world regions, monopolizing world market of informational products by the leading transnational corporations that state their terms and standards to consumers, asymmetric nature of information, danger of world terrorism and cybercrime.
State and municipal sector play a significant part in transition towards new, sixth technological cycle that is expected in 2020–2030.
The sixth setup is based upon transition towards nano- and biotechnologies, new physical-chemical and informational-cognitive (influencing thinking and behavior of people) concepts that transform not only the form, but also internal atomic-molecular and gene-cellular structure of labour object, the whole system of production. Social-innovative economy implies transition to small and moderate production that does not require transporting and processing great mass of natural raw materials, individual work at a completely new scientific-informational foundation of the new model of production evolution (that creates robotized computer assistants, new genotype of communication between material objects, firms, and people. (The Economist, 26.04.2014).
New forms of managing knowledge and intellectual property require transition from cybernetic (management according to oscillations from the existing goals) to synergetic management at the foundation of normative regulation of non-linear and unequal processes. System of knowledge is created at enterprises and it will include:
– Defining criterions of significance and value for a certain type of knowledge.
– Organization of search, storage, analysis, and presentation of data according to the corresponding requests in real time with digital databases.
– Classification of data according to types of product (order), market sectors, and business units.
– Development of concepts on structural elements and job descriptions that will allow to set clear communication and addressness of data transmission, exclude its duplication.
– Creation of data protection system, regulation of access and protection of commercial secret, including the process of resignation for employees who possess it.
– Organization of digital data exchange between services of marketing, innovation, production, service, and setup of internal informational network.
Cloud calculations allow each company to create digital area of selecting the best suppliers and consumers throughout the world, searching and mastering innovation, organizing logistic that will allow them to exclude warehouses and overstocking.
Modern economy is characterized by revolution in business organization, related to clustering, development of global supply chains, creation of value, transition from vertical to horizontal cooperation through establishing strategic alliances, modern innovation-investment projects, franchising, trust (not possessing any property) managing companies.
The work is submitted to the International Scientific Conference «Economic mechanism of innovative development», France (Paris), March, 19–26, 2016, came to the editorial office оn 26.02.2016.