Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

THE IMPORTANCE USE OF TRADITIONAL DECORATIVE APPLIED ART IN OF SCHOOL SYSTEM OF TRAINING TO ART, LABOR AND TECHNOLOGY

Kamak A.О. 1
1 Kazakh State Pedagogical University for Ladies
In The article of discusses the pedagogical meaning the use of traditional decoratively applied art of the people in the process of teaching fine art, in art labour working and technology in secondary schools of Kazakhstan and in system of preparation of future teachers. In the contents of the article of reveal the essential problem and the recommended methods of using this kind of art in the educational process as a means in development the knowledge of spiritual and material, art cultural values of the homeland.
school
education
traditional decorative arts
spiritual and cultural values
art
labor training and education
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XXI century is modern scientific and information age. As far as moving forward the development of society, also faced new demands to the formation and development of personal life of citizens, professional specialization, are also the same new requirements for the spiritual culture of his inner world. In accordance with the logic of the historical relationship of society, new forms of talents, aspiring to spiritual culture, a new mind, a new fact. The economic, social, as well as the development of other industries, requires a fresh look to the educational activity, analyze the achievements of the critical assessment, organization of innovative educational content and what is happening in the country, economic, social and other prosperity in different areas, the consideration of a new educational activity, differentiation is critical to assess the progress made in maintaining social development of the knowledge and the creative innovation of the population. In order to solve these problems are prepared in the state program “Cultural heritage”, “Ethno-cultural education”. “Kazakhstan – 2050”. In the content of the strategic development program specifically provides that it is the demands of present society: “The younger generation of the XXI century should not only be the object of education, they must also be the subject of spiritual and cultural entity, which should justify their place of creative students.” [1]. In this regard, the concept of pedagogical education of Kazakhstan puts a requirement: “...the future teacher needs to be armed with spiritual and cultural values of education intelligent action” [2, 3].

But in a new direction of development of the sphere, there are responsibilities require careful look from the standpoint of spiritual and cultural values to the public relations of citizens of different countries, to the truth of life environment. Because the citizens of each period, based on the last generation of historical practice, you need to constantly update, improve and develop it. Although there are unique requirements, rhythm, peculiar kind of universal turning to the development of a new way, if we abandon the spiritual and cultural values, posted last era then be shaken the foundation of the national culture. Therefore, taking each new thing you must take into account national peculiarities, and to be able to use to search for a special synthesis of traditional and innovative changes in the culture of the past period [3, 204].

Informatization of the educational process in Kazakhstan, a new innovative training, together with the world of educational technology, a combination of the national good made hands of humanity and to the development of spiritual culture heritage, the humanization of all levels of education and educational content is by far one of the most pressing educational problems. Through the educational system of each branch is a significant problem in the formation of patriotic feelings for his native country, spiritual and aesthetic of the young generation. Therefore, one of the responsibilities of each branch of education systems – “... with the demands and requirements of society to modern education, based on national and general human education, and on the basis of achievement of science and practice, the direction of the formation of citizens’ Eternal people” spirituality and cultural identity – should be the future of Kazakhstan [3, 204].

One of the means to carry out these teaching duties is art. Art is one of the oldest forms of human consciousness. There are many scientific conclusion, revealing the psychological structure, means and laws of the perception of beauty art (L.S. Vygotsky, M.M. Mukanov, B.M. Teplov, P.M. Yakobson, B.P. Yusov, etc.) that influence the formation of the personality of spirituality and aesthetics to reality and art; the versatility of art, the meaning and content, a variety of means and methods of creation, the material world view, and in the formation of aesthetic relationship to real estate (A. Burov, Y. Borev, I. Matz, B. Baizhigitov, etc.). Psychologist L.S. Vygotskii made the conclusion about the perception’s importance of art by saying: “Any theory of art is based on the view that is established in the study of perception, in the study of the feeling, imagination and fantasy” [4, 240]. Also, psychologist B.M. Teplov fastens this conclusion by saying: “The perception of art has to begin with feeling... without it, it is impossible, but the art perception isn’t limited by feeling. At first, this perception is “feeling”, and then “thinking”, besides very deeply and penetrating”.

Any art has a unique artistic language, means, peculiar to the art of artistic and aesthetic laws. In any form of art, on the basis of the inherent creativity of the laws, the artist takes the ambient reality and updates in your consciousness beautiful phenomena influenced his sense, and creates his works of art images [6, 5]. The viewer the beauty of these images takes emotional senses, receives an impression, enjoys, and enters into cognitive thought. It follows the notion: mastering the art of not only ongoing practical performance, you should bear in mind that this engendered a close relationship of the psychological process of art education and practical action, means for raising each viewer with the spiritual side. This problem, in the process of schooling and education of adolescents through the arts teaches the creative work that directly relates to occupational specialty in institutes of higher education preparing future teachers.

One branch of this art is a traditional decorative-applied art, a means of education and the legacy of spiritual and material culture, which gives complete information about life, creative talent and the aesthetic Outlook of legibility with communication with real life of people.

Author’s purpose

To uncover the problems use of art and material values in the field of traditional art of Kazakhs, in a humanization the content of school art and esthetic education and as the important requirement of state programs “Cultural heritage”, “ethnocultural education” in development [in formation] of spiritual culture of the modern the of young generation

The main chapter

A pillar of a stable culture – spiritual and material values. It is the values handed down to us from a bygone era from our ancestors: literary folklore, folk music, folklore, customs and traditions, handicraft and folklore heritage of other creative actions. In particular, the legacy of the industry’s traditional decorative arts is one of the values, which gives greater opportunity to learn and to know the students of the folk ethnic, the reality of life and existence and artistic work, aesthetic requirements, the introduction of beauty in the ambient human environment and creative achievements.

The curricula subjects related to the school of fine arts, creative activities:

1. The subject of “Fine Arts” – creative skills of pupils, artistic and aesthetic attitude towards others phenomena of life, the perception of real life and beauty in art, the desire to create beauty with his own hands (motivational) [7, 35–36].

2. “Artistic work” in primary school and in the subject “Technology” in profile classes (grades 7–9) – with the training of labor culture, human relations in employment, with incentives to perform various labor actions, covering responsibilities for the development of creative abilities of search by using samples artisan [8].

In general, the benefits of arts education and upbringing of the young generation of the traditional arts and crafts native teachers, research findings in the development of their educational problems (A. Kamak, K. Eralin, E. Asylhanov, K. Amirgazin, Zh. Balkenov and others), research results have contributed to the introduction of national education and educational duties of school education in the fine arts. These teaching and educational problems are carried out with the help of activities and types of content in terms of “Art works on arts and crafts” school of the subject as a “Fine Arts”. Slated accomplished through the development of spiritual and material values in the national art “cognitive” knowledge of life and the reality of the students, while closely associating them with the program principle of aesthetic education “Surrounding reality and aesthetic perception of art.” [7, 53–56]. In school subjects as “Labor learning”, “Technology” (O. Satkanov, U. Abdygapparova, S. Zholdasbekova, K. Sagynbayeva, A. Shynybekova, N. Rakhmetova, A. Botobayeva and others), the main focus of teachers is to use these arts in research and methodical textbooks, in the content of the textbook on the basis of art and fine arts, skills, performing job actions, pedagogical, methodological problems in this direction [9, 394–395].But, in our research on labor training and technology, made on the basis of their research results, cognitive traditional decorative art was not considered enough. The value of “national crafts” – learn the steps of the student’s work, the fruit of the art to a spiritual relationship of people with reality, the production of objects of art materials with aesthetic value, the main task of artistic and aesthetic education be considered part of an important “benchmark” for assessing the quality [9–10]. Art lovers have long known that the development of the processes of art depends not only on the action.

The process of labor education and training of future teachers of the university system, arts and crafts was introduced as a curriculum school-related actions the nature of art as pedagogical (didactic, educational), psychological (reception, feeling, cognition, and other psychological processes) possess must be closely linked with practical learning processes (introduction to the art) [11]. Each teacher, according to their functional responsibilities should know the importance of providing training and artistic knowledge of the art of creating traditional arts and crafts, material, tin beauty, decoration style, the use of space. Because it is not only the performance of household needs, it is also a means to create spiritual and material values of culture. From this arises the need of humanization of general human values, historical experience and the centuries-old spiritual and material cultural values, art education, education and education. In preparation for future school teachers, it can be understood that the development of national crafts samples, development of didactic, technological, educational demand, methods of work is an important issue, relevant social and moral obligations.

The Research

Research practice aimed at uncovering the causes of current problems, showed that emotional perception, range of action and activation of motivation directly associated with the creative search of students is due to the lack of unity active motivational action, which leads to action. In the classroom arts and crafts, children, using different materials that they have created a sample of things of different shapes, collect designers decorate. Ways and methods for their manufacture are similar to the work of school subjects as “fine art” and “technology”. But, in labor discipline children only learn to perform the work shown by repeating the teacher (the reproductive method of teaching) by creating a sample things (from the beginning to the end of the work). The objective of arts and crafts of the subject – “with artistic activities of students accustom to making original, beautiful and decorative way of [10] to the content of the compulsory subjects remained outside. The results of our study showed that the development of children’s creativity and the arts should be developed with the help of traditional arts and crafts, which emphasize the need to respect the unity of the following:

1) pedagogical trend which is used to implement the principles of arts education and the implementation of the principles of spiritual and aesthetic development;

2) psychological process, contributing to the formation of consciousness in children, internal and external motivators (reception-perception, emotional feeling – spatial reasoning – the interpretation and aesthetic preferences – creative effects, etc.);

3) practical methodological actions aimed at the development of creative approach to work and graphic activity of the child, (a way to create a work of art, tools, patterns and practices) and aimed at development of creative potential [7, 23–33; 9].

The author based on the results of the study suggested that this wording themes related to this problem: for secondary school teachers: at first, are already the subject of “Fine Arts” they need to know the contents of objects of decorative and applied arts, with regard to their work – the organization of artistic education is very important to know the related materials, style design, the beauty of forms, their purpose in life, etc. as ethnic, aesthetic and spiritual values, and anything else that relates to the art. Because art is a means to create spiritual and material culture, and repayment of the population’s needs. Secondly, different subjects that help expand knowledge, technology of processing of natural materials, processing technology, creating beauty and artistic decoration, design, elegant cognitive knowledge about the traditions of decoration; thirdly, the combination of art design with work; fourthly, in the classroom work of students should use a variety of materials, processing, modeling, product, technology through the development of skills to create your own beauty inherent in the area of content search, the awakening of interest in the creative development of each subject should be major requirements [9, 395].

Deduction

Due to problems based on our ongoing research, training future teachers in the school of fine arts, art, and technology functions to preserve the unity of the educational integrity, to be achieved by means of the possibility to implement a comprehensive and high-quality result. These charges are the following:

– the cognitive: To help learner understand the nature and meaning of art and the value of human life, to know the arts and crafts style, educational concept, through his spiritual, cultural and historical value, and inform people about the real values of the world in art;

– the upbringing: to generate interest in traditional craft by using their own artistic and aesthetic values, attitudes, tastes, cultures and national traditions of students in secondary education, reviving interest in the history of their native land and the people;

– the developing: art products and the ability to discern the signs of aesthetic value, the idea of role in the functioning of the system, creates a huge opportunity for the development of the efficiency of interpretation; learning objectives are distinguished by choice of materials and products that improve the ability of search, thus developing a productive work search;

– the socialization: to awaken in the child a sense of pride for the art of its people, contributes to the formation of his social relations to changes in world culture, o people and motherland, effect on the awareness of its civic involvement to these changes;

– the communicative: cultural heritage, arts, national understanding of the nature and style of his peers and teachers, and develop the ability to exchange views; mutual help in labor, “business” would be ensure the development of communication skills [9, 396-397].

These mentioned functions of Higher Education Institutions in its pedagogical practice process are a guarantee of the quality of training of future teachers.

Conclusion

On the basis of certain problems and ways in the text content, we offer the following requirements aimed to solve them:

– social, aesthetic traditions of the population, art ideas for change, for the creation of art forms, the formation of the ability to analyze the reasons for the growing interest in change;

– by means of arts, the opportunity to participate in public life and control the human values, to explore the ideological mechanisms of formation for activation of the beneficial use of artistic and aesthetic education schools, and training should be the main direction of humanization;

– the young generation in the field of art that affects the mental processes, and contribute to improving the quality of education in the field of art and aesthetic connection with the requirements of education and training, the learning process should be implemented as a special task.

– to revive the interest of pupils to the national art, including traditional arts and crafts, educational and aesthetic connection with the works of masters of material and cultural values of the country to ensure the knowledge of a precious heritage;

– the formation of spirituality and culture of the student for creating a new educational platform and refined educational principles, the combination of advanced samples and educational principles, effective combination of technology with the best pedagogical samples; Humanitarian and educational work in the context of beneficial use; Lessons, outside school art activities on the consideration of education.