Spreading of HIV-infection represent a life danger, safety and welfare danger to the whole population, national wellbeing and security of Russia in general. Nowadays situation with HIV-infection in Russia characterizes by magnification in numbers, enlargement of infected people age distribution, increase of sexual transmission of the virus and rate of tuberculosis contamination combined with HIV-infection.
In 2015 epidemic situation of HIV-infection in Russia at the Stavropol territory (the same as in the whole Russia in general) didn’t have stabilization signs and stayed arduous. Significant deterioration of epidemic situation is observed after the past 2 years. 752 HIV-infection cases revealed at the Stavropol territory in 2015, which is 62,4 % greater than in 2014 and 3,1 times bigger than in 2013. Morbidity rate amounted to 26,6 on 100 000 people.
From the total amount of registered people – 79 % of them are permanent residents of the city, 8 % – homeless people, 7 % – residents of another subjects of the Russian Federation, temporary staying at the Stavropol territory and 7 % of foreign people. 58 % of foreign people were the ones forced to leave Ukraine.
Mainly spreading of HIV typical to male part of the Stavropol territory population. Males compiled 68 % of the total amount. The ratio of infected males and females is 2,2:1,0
The number of infected people from older age groups continued to grow in 2015. At the age of 30 to 39 revealed 42,2 % (365 people), to compare – 43 % (194 people) in 2014. The age group of 20 to 29 revealed 19,8 % (147 people) to 26 % (117 people) in 2014. Children younger than 14 revealed 0,4 % (3 people) and youth from 15 to 20 – 1 % (8 people).
Socially professional composition of HIV-infected people have been stable for a long lime and was characterized by involvement of socially adapted contingent. So at the period of 2013–2014 the majority of infected people were the working class – workers, employees, entrepreneurs, service workers etc. The condition have changed in 2015 – 62 % of identified HIV infected were socially non-adapted – homeless people, prisoners and unemployed people mainly due to increase of drug related infection.
It should be noted that for more than 10 years (including 2014) the main reason for HIV-infection at the Stavropol territory were heterosexual contacts. In 2014 57 % were infected this way. Besides in 2015 the main way of infection was drug and psychoactive substances injection – 57,7 % (418 people). At the same time the enhancement of the sexually infected people occurred – from 261 to 301 people, moreover, 11 patients were infected through the homosexual way. In general sexual way of spreading the infection was amounted to 41,9 % in 2015. HIV infection of children got from their mothers during the pregnancy period, childbirth and breastfeeding .appeared in 0,4 % cases (3 children).
After the registration of the first HIV-infection cases at the Russian Federation territory epidemic response system was created: sanitary-epidemic control system for the infectious diseases was mobilized, research and educational medical institutions operatively and scientifically highly skilled included this problem into their programs, medical workers of all specializations did proper training.
Along with that, the following factors negatively influence the successful solution of decreasing of infection spreading:
● Insufficient informing of population and infection risk groups by HIV-infection prophylactic programs.
● Low knowledge level, lack of motivation to safely behavior, healthcare and HIV testing.
● High level of discrimination of HIV-infected people.
● Insufficient use of potential of the social associations, religious organizations HIV-prophylactic.
For the purpose of reduction of HIV-infection for the Russian Federation population The Ministry of health of the Russian Federation created a governmental strategy project to resist spreading of the infection, caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the Russian Federation for the period until 2010. One of the main actions of this project is common access of the population to the effective measures preventing from spreading the HIV-infection.
Mainly HIV-infection concentrates among the social groups experiencing unusual and risky sexual relations, using injecting drugs which compile social category related to the “group of social risk” which means that it isn’t covered by the systematic prophylactic work from the governmental municipal side.
In order to maintenance the effectiveness of prophylactic programs at such social groups and supply the information of the ways of spreading HIV-infection, increase motivation of HIV testing involvement of volunteers and outreach workers is needed.
The most effective way to realize the prophylactic program is to attract volunteers who did the drug addiction rehabilitation course. They know well the drug addict life features and the need of taking drugs that helps to build high level of trust and involvement of the risk groups into prophylactic programs.
An experience in realization of the national and multinational HIV prophylactic programs testifies the leading role of outreach groups in infection risk reduction of the people practicing hazardous behavior. The conditions of successful outreach groups are: the presence of volunteers having special education, the time needed to make trustful relations with certain group of people, transport charges .
No less important guideline at the prophylactic work for HIV spreading prevention is teenagers and youth preparation in “equal to equal” programs, especially for the works in unfavorable youth groups – college students and young people practicing homosexual relations. Into the program composition of volunteer training must be included not only informational blocks about the HIV epidemiology, ways and methods of infecting but also training approvals to stigma reduction in relation to people living with HIV.
Traditionally, prophylactic programs are oriented on teenagers and youth and are realized in educational institutions of different levels whereas HIV-infection is typical to older ages. At this connection it’s necessary to activate the work in mass media and also in the Internet.
Thus, despite the measures taken during the recent years, tendency of HIV spreading requires further improvement in prophylactic work and increase of effectiveness in interagency cooperation of solving this problem.