Country farms – one of the most important elements of agricultural production in modern economic realities. The analysis of the development of plant science in close to each other in many parameters regions of Russia shows that the specific weight of country farms of the Tver region is twice higher than in Yaroslavl region in a total amount of production of agriculture in actually operating prices, percentage of farms of all categories. The main cultures made by country farms of these regions are potato growing, cultivation of feeding and industrial crops. Thus, structure of yielding of crop production is not differed by farmers of the Yaroslavl and Tver regions – they consist of the identical components differing only in quantitative indices. However more advantageous geographical position of the Tver region gives indisputable advantage to the development of country farms.
Northern areas of the Central economic region (Yaroslavl and Tver regions) are chosen for comparison. Territories of the considered areas are similar in a number of the main natural indicators especially important for farming, and for creation and development of country farms. They are agro climatic and climatic conditions, provision with inner waters and land resources, type of soil and many other things. Development of agricultural production is non-uniform in these areas in spite of similar environment.
Specific weight of country farms of the Tver region made 4 % in total production of agriculture in actually operating prices, percentage of farms of all categories, it is almost twice higher than in Yaroslavl region (about 1,7 %).
Such distinction can be explained by the areas of the territory this regions. The Tver region is much more on the area than Yaroslavl region, it explains a large number of the registered country farms. It should be noted that the number of country farms in the Tver region in 1992 made 2310 and it is more than in the Yaroslavl region in 2009–2193 farms.
46,2 thousand hectares are used in structure of agricultural grounds of the Yaroslavl region, from them 39,9 thousand hectares fall to agricultural grounds, and 30,9 thousand hectares fall to farm fields .
The area falling on one farms of the Yaroslavl region makes about 21 hectare while in the Tver region it is 25 hectares now.
In 2013 the cultivated area of the Yaroslavl farmer sector made 8 thousand hectares, and of the Tver region – 48,3tys. hectare. The greatest part of farm fields in Yaroslavl region and Tver region falls to forage crops (5,4 thousand hectares and 37,8 thousand hectares respectively), the smallest part to vegetable and industrial crops (0,2 thousand hectares at farmers of both areas). 0,3 thousand hectares are engaged under crops of small grains in farms of the Yaroslavl region, while in the Tver region it is 7,3 thousand hectare. 0,8 thousand hectares are engaged under potatoes in the Yaroslavl region and 2,7 thousand hectares in the Tver region.
The indicator of the Tver region exceeds Yaroslavl region on gross collection of potatoes in farms.
It is explained firstly by the big areas occupied under bedding of potatoes, faster warming up and drying-out of the soil (feature of climate of the Tver region), it gives the chance at the end of April to start bedding and influences favorably development of potatoes, and also high level of mechanization of agricultural works. The ploughing, dragging and unearthing of potatoes is completely mechanized in the Tver region .
Gross collection of vegetables in country farms of the Yaroslavl region is much higher, than in the Tver region. That is connected with historically developed prerequisites (first of all it is the Rostov municipal area which delivered vegetables to an imperial table as early as under Peter the Great), with the close arrangement of the districts of the Yaroslavl region which are engaged in vegetable growing to the centers of sale (Moscow, Yaroslavl) .
Gross collecting of grain and pulse crops is insignificant in the Tver and Yaroslavl regions that is connected with adverse agroclimatic conditions for cultivation of grain in both areas and also with increasing of prime cost and it reduction of cultivated areas.
The main industrial crop in country farms of the Yaroslavl and Tver regions is fiber flax. Number of gross collecting of flax and its cultivated areas are more in farms of the Tver region. It is defined by more favorable conditions for its growth (positive balance of moistness that is its arrival in the form of rainfall exceeds an expense on evaporation). Flax production is a traditional branch of farms of the Tver region. But even in this region the flax production isn’t the leading branch that is connected with weak mechanization, shortage of manpower, violation in production technologies of flax. These are the main reasons of considerable reduction of cultivated areas, productivity, outputs and quality of flax in farms of Yaroslavl and the Tver regions. All large farms of production of flax in the Tver region are at the same time also the main producers of potatoes.
Thus, structure of production of crop production by farmers of the Yaroslavl and Tver areas is not differed essentially – they consist of the identical components differing among themselves in quantitative indices.
Why then the Tver region gives one of the highest rates of agricultural production by country farms?
The Tver region has more favorable economic and geographical position. It is located in the center of Russia as well as Yaroslavl. But the Tver region is unlikely to Yaroslavl region in close proximity not only to Moscow, but also to St. Petersburg. It represents the contact zone of the center connecting it with northwest and northern regions of the European Russia, the Baltics and Northland. It is inevitable the reorientation of economic interests of the Center and other regions of Russia from the southern directions on the northern in new geopolitical conditions essential. The role of the ports of Baltic and the North Sea grew. In this situation the Tver region receives new incentives for activization of economic life and use of benefits of a geographical position .
Under the conditions of the Tver region the plant science of farms is closely connected with animal industry and generally develops not as commodity branch, unlike farms of the Yaroslavl region, and as food supply of animal industry.
The Tver region can favourably use already existing transport infrastructure providing it steady contacts with the Russian and foreign regions. The immediate vicinity with the Moscow region and Moscow makes the area attractive to domestic and foreign investors.
Thus, many differences are found by comparison of two similar areas and they are to the disfavor of the Yaroslavl region. There are many things to learn at the farms of the Tver region by the Yaroslavl agricultural producers, heads of departments of agriculture of the Yaroslavl region in spite of rather low indicators of farms of the Tver region.
The work is submitted to the International Scientific Conference “Prospects of development of plant growing”, Italy, April 11–18, 2015, came to the editorial office оn 15.03.2015.