Intense physical exercise in sport often lead to the development of fatigue. The mechanism of this phenomenon is not fully understood. It is assumed that the basis of the development of fatigue in athletes is a violation of purine metabolism.
The study involved highly qualified swimmers males aged 17 to 20 years. The athletes according to the data functional methods of research were divided into two groups: no signs of fatigue (C1, n = 61) and having a their (C2, n = 20). The control group (K) consisted of 30 young men not involved in sports the same age. Blood sampling was performed in athletes after training. In blood serum was estimated concentration lactate, uric acid and glucose; in erythrocytes – the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione.
Found that at group athletes C2 efficiency reutilization lactate reduced, which contributes to the development of hypoglycemia. Deficiency of glucose and decreased activity G6PD leads to inhibition of the pentose cycle. All this contributes to the catabolism of purines. Concentration of urates in athletes groups C2 was reliably higher than in group C1 (42.4 %) and K (41.2 %). The consequence of the activation of xanthine oxidase is generation of free radicals, leading to a deficiency of glutathione and lipid peroxidation of membranes. Glutathione levels in athletes group C2 below on the 18.5 % (P = 0.033) and 11.1 % (P = 0.017) on relation to the groups K and C1 respectively. Content MDA in erythrocytes athletes group C2 above to 29.2 % (P = 0.042) and 32.6 % (P = 0.003) on compared with the this indicator in group K and C1 respectively.
Development of fatigue in athletes swimmers contribute lactic acidosis and hypoglycemia, leading to catabolism of purines up to uric acid. Last accompanied by the activation of free radical oxidation in cells, inhibition of the antioxidant system and enzymes of the pentose cycle.
The work is submitted to the International Scientific Conference “Fundamental research”, TUNISIA (Hammamet), June 9–16, 2015, came to the editorial office оn 14.04.2015.