Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

THE PERSONAL-SITUATIONAL APPROACH IN PROFESSIONAL-LABOUR SOCIALIZATION OF STUDENTS

Krasnopyorova A.G. 1
1 Krasnodar Technical College
1. Mardahaev L.V. Dictionary on social pedagogic / L.V. Mardahaev. – М: press “Academy”, 2002. – 368 p.
2. Reber A. The big sensible psychological dictionary / A. Reber. – М: Veche-ast, 2003. – T. 2. – 559 p.

Changes in formation, in particular, occurrence in Bolonsky process, have caused new accents in activity of average vocational training. In this connection priority enough direction is in professional – labor socialization of students of colleges, revealing of its motive forces.

The given theme represents considerable interest for educational practice as results of the conducted research can become the basis at construction of the maintenance of process of professional – labor socialization of students in the conditions of the educational environment of colleges.

We define criteria and indicators of professional-labor socialization of students of technical college: socially-adaptive, estimate-notional, cognitive-effective criteria. The stage-by-stage structure of continuous process of professional-labor socialization of students in a technical college, consisting in formation of representations about a trade, familiarizing with professional work, mastering by professional processes is offered.

Our research is constructed in a logician of design research, in particular modeling of professional-labor socialization of students of the technical college that can be a new design of educational process of a college.

However, though K. Levin, J. Bruner, U. Thomas, D. Leontev, N. Grishina, K. Levin and Sikurel wrote about personality both V.Thomas and Magnuson considered the situational approach in existential reality situations, we adhere to Z. Piazhe´s theory (Geneva school of psychology of man’s development) in which it is considered that a person passes a number of informative periods which show characteristic for each stage ways of thinking of a person: concrete operations, formal operations, preoperational thinking, sensitive motto intelligence. Unlike E.B. Titchnera´s empirical approach which considered all human mental experience as set or a combination of simple processes or elements [2, 325], the conscious theory, Z. Piazhe´s developments considered structure of visualizations of a person underlying intelligence, adaptive models of behavior which is characterized “as sequence of quasilogic and logic stages” [2, 325] through when a person passes on a way to logically formal operational level. We support Claude Levi-Strossa´s point of view characterized by the sociological, anthropological approach that in the attention centre by consideration of stage-by-stage development of a person there are social organizations and social structures and that, “as members of a civil society acquire them and as to them react” [2, 325].Thus, in the image, at youthful age the general and special abilities of a person on the basis of activity principal views develop: studying, dialogue and work in which general intellectual, communicative abilities are formed, and there is a formation in labor process of practical skills which will improve further professional, special abilities necessary for development of their future trade and personality of a man.

According to the social pedagogic dictionary by L.V. Mardahaev personality is the “ability of a person to be the strategist of the activity, to put and correct the purposes, to realize motives, independently to build actions and to estimate their conformity conceived, to build plans of future life [1, 300].

Together with it by L.V. Mardahaev the situation of social development is “system of relations of a man specific to everyone age period in the social validity, reflected in its experiences and realized by it in joint activity with other people” [1, 266]. This concept has been first used by L.S. Vygotskiy.

Therefore unlike the situational approach under the big sensible psychological dictionary by А.С. Reber, characterized as the approach “to management and a management of people in which it is underlined that there is no uniform certain set of skills which does leadership optimum in all situations”, and “various situations and circumstances are faster demand various skills, and in different situations different types of people will correspond is better a role of a manager or a leader” [2, 252], we consider the personal-situational approach presented by us as set of pedagogical receptions, methods of use of psychology-pedagogical toolkit for a harmonious combination conscious actions, formation of valuable orientations and creation of interrelations in a disposition “a student – a teacher”, “a teacher – a student”, the realized communications of subject knowledge consisting in activation with formed is professional-labor representations, in increase of level of conformity of formed knowledge and abilities and corresponding educational actions to professional-labor social norms, in ordering of control the level of conformity of the generated qualities to these norms.

In professional-labor socialization of students professional, social qualities that were helped by an educational situation in the form of educational functional system optimum changed. Teachers aspired to optimize communications of training with manufacture. In tasks professional-labor inclusions were included for this purpose developed for practical works. In them labor situations from region branches were used. We develop structure of interrelations in functional pedagogical system of professional-labor socialization.

Thus, the consciousness of a teacher co-operates with the consciousness of a student and an object of its activity. The teacher informs the student what it is necessary to do. It transferees information on a task in view on professional-labor socialization from consciousness of the teacher to student‘s consciousness. The student during this moment is in some current condition of professional-labor socialization. In this condition the object of action is shown to the student. In the course of activity it repeatedly meets a number of the objects which are components of object of its activity. The object getting in the field of attention of the student in a condition of representations 1 is shown as a component of object 1. Each component can be both material, and ideal. The student carries out action in a condition of representations 1 therefore some property is shown, more precisely, a property component of professionally-labor socialization which is designated as property of professional-labor socialization 1. It is what the student has expected, carrying out actions. The information on this property, arriving in consciousness of the student, it is enriched and is passed in a condition of representations 2. The information on results of this action in the formalized kind arrives to the teacher, it is fixed by its consciousness, and it can submit to the student the additional information correcting its actions or stimulating them. Further process repeats, and at the student corresponding professional, social quality gradually is formed or is developed. The teacher, using the personal-situational approach, can apply different receptions of creation of situations: to induce, theoretically to explain the facts, to make use of experience of reality situations, to search for application of results of problem tasks, to put problems, to solve a problem of industrial situations, spontaneously arisen situations connected with the inexplicable facts, to show the different points of view, to ask questions of alternative type, to give tasks which will happen.

The system of professional-labor socialization of students of technical college took root according to the plan of pedagogical experiment, the organization, methodology and a research technique. The experiment check of the model was carried out in Krasnodar technical college.

Experimental work was spent to some stages: ascertaining, forming, analytical.

During pedagogical experiment the problem was put: by means of the personal-situational approach and interactive forms of work with students to change their professional, social qualities, to develop their professional preferences, interests, motives, requirements and move them on desire to have individual style in work, to develop abilities quickly to come into contacts in new collective, to analyze circumstances and quickly to make correct decisions, to put the theory into practice and by that to be socialized in society.

As interactive forms of work with students on the further development of their professional preferences, in professional-labor sociality, sensibleness of their professional-labor self-determination following forms of work are applied: Internet projects, presentations on professional themes, trainings “I and the collective of a group”, “The responsible relation to business”, debates “What work resources are necessary to Krasnodar territory?”, “What values will you prefer in life?”, whether “Is it necessary to choose future trade needed to a society, the vital status and security of its representatives?”, collectively-creative affairs “We do together”, “We learn to work in a command”, “We reach the purpose together”.

During experiment testing on students’ professional development by the criteria of professional-labor socialization in which have taken part from experimental group has been held: 61 students before experiment (experimental group before experiment– E-b) and 156 students after experiment (experimental group after experiment – E-a), from control group: 49 students before experiment (control group before experiment – C-b) and 125 students after experiment (control group after experiment – C-a) (see table).

The results of pedagogical research have shown that after profound pedagogical work of all pedagogical collective of the college on consciousness of professional-labor self-determination of students, development of their professional-labor socialization (by means of debates, fairs of vacancies, collectively-creative affairs, meetings with veterans of manufacture, masters of business, trainings, class hours, letters to a friend, celebrations of veterans of work, excursions to manufacture, the technical competitions, creation of breadboard models, an electric equipment, a cycle of compositions, competitions of abstracts) there was a considerable growth of professional-labor socialization of students.

Testing by socially-adaptive criterion has revealed the greatest difference between the results of control and experimental groups on following parameters:

– Professional and labor adaptation in collectives (the indicator has grown on 42,0 %);

– Mastering by various kinds of professional work (on 16, 4 %).

By estimate – notional criterion the greatest difference between the results of control and experimental groups has occurred on following parameters:

– The responsible relation to business (has increased on-19 % – a zone of the present development of students);

– Spiritually and moral development and creative self-development of a man (has grown on 4,5 %);

– The reference of professional knowledge in ability (has increased on 45,5 %).

By cognitive-effective criterion the greatest difference between the results of control and experimental groups is fixed on following parameters:

– Professional competence (has raised on 37,1 %);

– Business communications (has increased on 43,5 %);

– Management of the vocational training (has grown on 35,4 %).

The results of pedagogical experiment allow to draw a conclusion that the zone of the nearest development of students consists in cooperation of cultures, in a choice and acceptance of labor values and vital senses of the chosen trade, in spiritual and moral development and creative self-development of the person, in adaptive management of the further vocational training, in constant labor self-education during all labor human life.

During experiment valuable orientations of students of the experimental group were developed.

Monitoring of the criteria of professional-labor socialization of students, %

Criteria of students’ professional-labor socialization

C-b

C-a

difference

E-b

E-a

difference

The result

Socially-adaptive criterion

Love to the additional literature by the chosen trade

63,3

57,6

–5,7

63,8

71,8

8,0

13,7

Individual style in work

100

72,0

–28,0

65,4

69,3

3,9

31,9

Speed of adjustment contacts in new collective group

95,9

64,0

–31,9

63,6

73,7

10,1

42,0

Ability to change the activity on demand

59,2

58,4

-0,8

45,4

53,9

8,5

9,3

Ability to seize adjacent specialties

75,5

72,0

–3,5

67,2

80,1

12,9

16,4

The general indicator

78,8

64,8

–14

61,1

69,8

8,7

22,7

Estimate-notional criterion

Adherence to universal values

95,9

99,2

3,3

81,9

89,7

7,8

4,5

Responsibility in business

51,0

72,8

21,8

48,5

51,3

2,8

–19,0

Constant spiritually and moral development of a man

57,1

53,6

–3,5

43,9

44,9

1,0

4,5

Ability to analyze the passed day

30,6

29,6

–1,0

34,1

52,6

18,5

19,5

The general indicator

58,7

63,8

5,1

52,1

59,6

7,5

2,4

Cognitive-effective criterion

Application in practice of a studied studying material

69,4

41,6

–27,8

61,8

79,5

17,7

45,5

Love to search additional material of future trade in Internet, in professional magazines

71,4

44,0

–27,4

53,8

63,5

9,7

37,1

The aspect analysis, what additional knowledge are necessary for the further professional-labor socialization

69,4

64,0

–5,4

60,7

73,1

12,4

17,8

Love to dialogue on themes of the chosen trade

71,4

35,2

–36,2

67,1

74,4

7,3

43,5

Constant requirement to work, work motivation

83,7

69,6

–14,1

67,0

73,2

6,2

20,3

Definition of orientation of the further professional-labor socialization

69,4

36,8

–32,6

38,9

41,7

2,8

35,4

The general indicator

72,5

48,5

–20,9

58,2

67,6

9,4

30,3

Total indicator

70,0

59,0

–11,0

57,1

65,7

8,6

19,6

In educational process of college interdisciplinary communications, character and complexity of disciplines were considered; new forms of carrying out of lessons were used. The technique “Valuable orientations” by M. Rokich in which the beliefs diagnosed by means of the method of direct ranging, are named by values were used. For research have been generated experimental (20 people) and control groups (54 people).

As a result of experiment values “knowledge (possibility of expansion of the formation, an outlook, the general culture, intellectual development)” have statistically significantly raised: in experimental group (p < 0,03) with 8th to 6th rank, in control (p < 0,01) – with 12th to 11th rank. It has occurred most likely thanks to introduction in experimental groups of such forms of work, as debates, brain storms, business games, discussion of industrial situations.

Values “development (work on self, constant physical and spiritual perfection)” has statistically significantly risen: in experimental group (p < 0,01) with 9th to 6th rank, in control (p < 0,01) – with 12th to 11th rank. Such indicator in experimental group became possible as a result of training of students with use of Internet resources, problem training, and the subject – situational approach.

Values “responsibility (call of duty, ability to keep the word)” in experimental group is statistically significant (p < 0,06) have risen – with 10th to 7th rank, in control group is statistically significant (p > 0,05) have gone down – with 7th to 9th rank). It has occurred because in experimental group meetings with leaders of manufacture were held, industrial situations were discussed, and students were involved in manufacture of subjects on the future specialty, the edition of methodical grants for students, to participation in projects on professional subjects.

Thus, it has been empirically confirmed that educational process causes changes of separate values of students, and using of active and interactive forms of carrying out of lessons and the personal-situational approach influence the process of professional-labor socialization of students.


The work is submitted to the International Scientific Conference “Modern sociology and education”, London, October 18–25, 2014 came to the editorial office оn 09.08.2014.