Among various innovative technologies for exploration and development of oil-and-gas fields, there are some ideas and projects not realized as yet. Nowadays when a technological breakthrough in oil-and-gas exploration and production is urgently needed, laser technology is supposed, in a long-term prospect, to make it possible to extract almost all the oil from an oilfield with no environmental pollution.
In order to create ultra-high resolution means of seismoacoustic or electromagnetic location, capable of displaying details of smaller size than the probing wave length, the effects of nonlinear parametric interaction of wave fields should be used.
New possibilities in performing the main tasks of laser-parametric diagnostics as applied to seismic exploration of oilfields are based on detailed analysis of quickly changing interference pattern formed by scattered wave fields, through varying parameters of complicated probing signals such as frequencies, phases, intensity, polarization and the direction of propagation. These new possibilities use the present-day developments in the physics of nonlinear-wave parametric processes and in the theory of inverse scattering problem .
There is a large number of works devoted to diagnostics of weak vibrations with the use of various methods (see, for example, [1–5]).
Ultrahigh-resolution means of laser radiation allow interaction of laser impulses with objects smaller than the radiation wavelength; for this purpose, it is offered to use the effects of parametric interaction of waves. Thus, the resonance-parametric method for registration of vibrations in irradiated media makes it possible to classify them through measuring the vibration spectrum for various directions of irradiation, and to restore details of the scattering object with the resolution of the wavelength order and higher. This method is similar to laser-parametric method for registration of plasma vibrations.
Parametric satellite lines in laser irradiation can be used to impact vibrations with amplitudes much less than the radiation wavelength.
Thus, requirements for technical characteristics of parametric sources of laser radiation can be significantly weakened if differential methods are used for registration of various wave field parameters, as these methods make it possible to dismember the complicated pattern of nonlinear-wave interaction into separate details and to analyze their structures. The specific feature of these methods is measuring the differences in frequencies, phases, amplitudes, and polarizations of various components of laser radiation. Formally, these methods are similar to differential methods of analysis of nonlinear resonance in laser spectroscopy.