Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

THE DIFFERENTIATION CHALLENGES RESEARCH HISTORICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL PRECONDITIONS IN THE STUDENTS’ SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION SYSTEM

Shilova V.S. 1
1 The National Research University «BelSU»
1. Babansky Y.K. The Optimization of the Teaching and Educational Process. – М., 1982.
2. Gershunsky B.S. The Philosophy of Education. – М., 1998.
3. The Didactics of the Secondary School / Under the editorship of M.N. Skatkina. – М., 1982.
4. Levites D.G. The Practice of Learning: the Modern Educational Technologies. – М.- Voronezh, 1998.
5. Monakhov V.M., Orlov V.A., Firsov V.V. The Instruction Differentiation in the Secondary School // The Soviet Pedagogy. – 1990. – № 8.
6. The New Teaching and Information Technologies in the Educational System / Under the editorship of E.S. Polat. – М., 2000.
7. The Russian Pedagogical Encyclopedia. In 2 volumes. – М., 1993/1999.
8. Shchukina G.E. The Pedagogy. – М., 1977.

The complex content of the studying youth social and environmental education is required the special conditions of its assimilation and the further mastering. One of these conditions and its ways, in our view, is supported the differentiated approach. So, the differentiation phenomenon is being studied not only at the general theoretical, but also at the specific and scientific level. In the context of this study, the achievements of the scientist - the teachers are presented a certain interest in this challenge. That's why, we'll open the established positions.

It should be noted, that the differentiation is the traditional pedagogical challenge, and it is directly related to the learning process and the process of education. Thus, the learning differentiation is understood, as the learning activity organization form of the middle and the older age students, at which their aptitudes, the interests, and the abilities manifested have already been taken into account. The differentiation use in the learning process does not reduce the general (e.g. basic) level of the students' general training education, as opposed to the furcation [3].

So, this challenge has its long history. Until the middle of the XIX-th century, it has been associated, mainly, with the individual learning; and by the end of this century - with the professional self - determination. However, the challenges studies of the learning individualization under the mass and the regular school conditions have been carried out, and the appropriate variants for the urban and the municipal schools organization, for example the Mannheim training system, have been offered. Later, in the XX-the century, the various types of the differentiation have been tested and approved in the school practice: according their abilities, in their intelligence, in their inabilities [7].

So, the differentiated instruction and training idea has been found its reflection in the regulations, the normative documents, and the application in the school practice of the Russian education system. Thus, still, in the beginning of the XX-th century (e.g. 1918) in «The Basic Principles of the United Labor School» the possibility has been established from the 14 years to be shared by the groups and to be distributed by the fields of the study, which are subjected to the unity of the rights for all in the education receiving. From the 20-es, the various types of the differentiation have been developed in the «Narkompross» pilot - demonstration facilities: by the interests (e.g. the natural sciences and the humanities), the Dalton - plan, the already chosen profile (e.g. it has been cancelled in the beginning of the 30-es) (e.g. ibid).

In the 30-es, despite of the state course policy obligation of the school uniform, the differentiated instruction and the training idea has been continued to be developed, firstly, by the main areas and the directions of the studied subjects and the disciplines - e.g. the natural sciences and the humanities, secondly, as the condition of the deepening and the expanding of the teaching material content. So, this idea had been gained the relevance and the urgency in the 50-es, when there was the need for the social and the public production development, and the need for the various specialists and the different experts. Hence - the link with the life with the school strengthening, the efficiency improving the students' training to work in the quite various sectors and the different branches of the national economy. Since, the late of 50-es, the differentiation idea has been begun to be taken its roots in the classroom practice in the framework of the elective classes and the facultative employment, the classes of their interests, and the in - deep study of the subject and the discipline. Thus, all these forms, as it had been shown by the experiment, appeared to be the quite effective, and they are still used now. The 60-es years are characterized by their conservation and the further introduction of the new ones: the special classes and the schools with the in - deep study of the subject and the discipline. In the 70-es years of the challenge study, as the bourgeois phenomenon, has been completely discontinued and completely stopped [3; 7].

The differentiation challenge researches have been continued at the end of the 80-es years, and that, as at the theoretical level, well as at the practical one. Thus, Shchukina G.E., in the approaches list to the learning, highlights the differentiated one, which is based on the consideration of the students' possibilities and their individual characteristics [8]. The Differentiated Instruction Concept has already been developed in the general secondary school (e.g. Skatkin M.N., Shakhmaev N.M., Babansky Y.K.). So, it is emphasized by the scientists and the scholars, that the teaching and educational process, for which it is characterized by the registration of the students' typical and the individual differences, it has been accepted to be called the differentiated one, and the training under this process conditions - the differentiated learning. And, moreover, the specific types of the differentiation are being considered: the internal one and the external one, according to their abilities, by their inabilities, by their projected occupation and the vocation later in the adult life, and also, according to their interests [1; 3].

In the 90-es years, the Russian pedagogical theory and its practice do not exclude the differentiation phenomenon of their own field of the attention. So, the differentiation idea is found its embodiment in the philosophical and pedagogical knowledge development (e.g. Gershunsky B.S.), the educational technologies challenges, some separate aspects: the nature, the structure, the means, and the forms - the external one and the internal one (levites D.G. and et. al. [2; 4]. In general, the Differentiated Instruction Concept in the general educational Institution of the 90-es years (e.g. Monakhov V.M., Orlov V.A. Firsov V.V.) is practical provided the profiled and the contoured training at the senior level, the elective and the optional courses. In addition, the schools and the classes with in - depth study of the separate subjects and the specific disciplines, the specialized general secondary educational Institutions are being functioned: the musical, the dance and choreographic, the sports, the arts ones, and etc. So, this can be met the pre - professional training students challenges in the general high schools, when they are manifested their strong and stable interests to the certain and the particular area of knowledge or to the practical activities [5].

The beginning of the XXI-st century has been marked by the necessity for the further reform of the Russian Educational System, having conditioned to the need of the state in people independently thinking, the creative ones, the initiative ones, the capable ones for the challenges' solving of the post - industrial society development. This, on the other hand, is required the interaction nature rethinking between the teacher and the students, the instructor and the students. In this connection, the central figures of the cognitive process the pupil and the student, any learner have already been become. In other words, according to the scientists and the scholars (e.g. Polat E.S., Bukharkina M.Y., Moiseeva M.V., Petrov A.E.), the personality - centered learning has been become the relevant and the urgent, which, by its essence, is practically provided the differentiated approach to the learning, with a view of the learner's intellectual development level, his training in the particular subject and the discipline, his abilities and the inclinations. So, to be realized it, as the scientists and the scholars believe, the quite new pedagogical technologies will be helped: the cooperative learning, the projects method, the multileveled training, «The Pupil's Portfolio», the individual and the differentiated approaches to the learning, the reflection ability, which are implemented in these above - listed technologies [6].

Thus, the even preliminary analysis of the differentiated approach challenge has already been shown the possibilities presence for the various educational and pedagogical tasks solution, including the system of the studying youth social and environmental education. All these possibilities disclosure - is the main goal of our future research.

The work is submitted to the International Scientific Conference «Actual problems of science and education», France (Marseilles), June, 2-9, 2013, came to the editorial office оn 01.04.2013.