An impact of biochemical factors over the formation of chemical composition of a reservoir is defined by processes of constant exchange of a substance and energy in biochemical natural circles. Processes of transforming substances in a reservoir are multidimensional: substances participate in processes of dissolution, electrolytic dissociation, complex-formation, catalytic transformations, absorption at the surface of non-organic, organic, and bio-organic materials, are consumed and discharged during processes of hydrobionts’ metabolism.
Anthropogenic impact leads to significant alterations in chemical composition of a reservoir: chemical composition of atmospheric fallouts, undersoil and river waters changes. Mineralization of a reservoir water and concentration of polluting substances increases under a regulation of flow due to an increase in area of vapor and accumulation of substances. Plowing soils and cutting woods at the territory of rivers Beresh, Bazyr, Kadat alters correlation between surface and soil flows of the rivers.
We have revealed 14 factors that influence a reservoir ecosystem via the method of factor analysis of a statistic data row according to the quality of cooling reservoirs for a decade. The first of the outlined factors defines about 19 % of the total dispersion of the observed indexes, and the second factor – about 13 %. Total share of sum dispersion of all indexes that is defined by an impact of two simple factors, equal 32,0 % of their complete dispersion. Considering the nature of a reservoir ecosystem that is affected by a large number of accidental and uncontrolled events, contribution of the two simple factor should be considered significant.
The first and the most influential factor is linked to a leak of polluting substances into the river Kadat with the sough. The researchers have established that during its whole flow the river Karat is exposed to an intense anthropogenic impact. The influence of the polluted water of rivers Kadat, Beresh is reflected at all checkpoints of the reservoir, as the river sough that penetrates the upper part of the reservoir with the flow and circular flow is transported into the central and by-dam parts of the water pool, participates in the formation of bottom depositions in the reservoir.
The second factor that influences the quality of water is related to a geophysical situation that impacts temperature regime in a cooling reservoir. Oscillations of the second simple factor have a clear cyclic nature. Temperature of water is a component of the second factor; apart from natural seasonal oscillations, it is revealed to an impact of heat discharge from heat aggregates of hydric power stations. Water temperature significantly impacts processes of dissolution of peat massives in a reservoir bed. Nowadays, ecologic condition of the water intake territory has a significant contribution into the anthropogenic component of factors.
The work was submitted to International Scientific Conference «Rational use of natural biological resources», Italy (Rome-Florence), April, 10-17, 2013, came to the editorial office 21.03.2013.