Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

GEODYNAMIC AND TECHNOGENIC PROCESSES IN THE AREAS OF OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION AND THEIR ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES

Kopylov I.S. 1
1 Natural-science institute of the Perm state national research university

The assessment of an ecological condition of environment of oil-and-gas territories is one of the major tasks at their development, for the purpose of safe development and carrying out policy of rational environmental management. Perm Krai is the large oil-and-gas region (area of 160,3 thousand sq.km) where within the Volga-Ural oil-bearing region, openly more than 220 oil fields and gas from which about 120 it is developed, many of them are exploited over 40 years, some are already developed. Searches of new fields are intensively carried out, in the territory more than 20 thousand deep and structural wells are drilled, tens of thousands of kilometers of geophysical profiles are passed. About 10 thousand main oil and gas pipelines on which quite often there are emergencies to ecological consequences are operated. On oil fields of Perm Krai pays attention the following types of change of environment: relief re-planning, deforestation, violation of a soil and vegetable cover, change of conditions of a superficial drain and infiltration in connection with construction of drilling platforms, laying of communications, constructions of settlers for boring solutions and industrial drains. Impact on the geological environment is shown in the following: pollution of fresh underground waters by oil products at the expense of leakages of oil from barns, oil pipelines at accidents, the trade equipment at violation of production schedules; pollution of underground waters by chlorides at breaks of deep brines through defective wells and hydrodynamic gaps; impoverishment of deep brines by pumped fresh waters; radio nuclide pollution of a subsoil (breeds and brines) as a result of the underground nuclear explosions which have been carried out for an intensification of oil production. Feature oil-extracting technogenesis is considerable depth (to 2–3 km) coverage of the geological environment by technogenic loadings and wide scales of negative impact on environment. In regions of oil fields more than 70 centers of pollution of underground waters with an area up to 100 sq. km are revealed. Difficult nature of pollution is shown at an arrangement of oil fields in a coastal zone of large reservoirs. The significant role is played by the geological factors caused by geodynamic, structural and tectonic, neotectonic processes. At investigation and development of gas and oil fields activization of a deep karst formation with formation of failures is observed. Especially strongly these processes are observed in geodynamic active zones with a high tectonic fracturing of breeds. The most significant environmental problem of oil-and-gas regions of Perm Krai is a liquidation of technogenic hydrodynamic systems in the top part of the geological section which manifestation in a zone of fresh underground waters is observed on many oil and gas fields.

The work is submitted to the International Scientific Conference «Control of production and natural resources», Australia (Sydney), March 26 – April 6, 2013, came to the editorial office оn 13.03.2013.