Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

THE ATHLETES’ ANXIETY LEVEL, DEPENDING ON QUALIFICATION DEGREE

Jankuldukova A.D. 1 Khaybullin M.P 2 Almukhambetova B.Z. 1 Bitleuov B.A. 1 Kabdrakhmanova A.K. 1
1 The Zhetysusky State University after E. Zhansugurov
2 The RSP Institute of Human and Animals Physiology
1. Iljin E.P. The Sports Psychology. – The Collection of Publications: «St. Piter», 2008.
2. Sopov V.F. The Psychological Training Theory and Methods in the Modern Sport. – М.: Trixta, 2010. – 116 p. 6.
3. Iljin E.P. The Physical Education Psychophysiology. – М.: The Education, 1983. – Р. 223.
4. Cretti Brayent J. The Psychology in the Modern Sport. The translation from English by Hanin Yu.L. – M.: The Physical Education and Sport, 1978. – Р. 224.

The athletes’ and sportsmen’s anxiety level, depending on the sports training qualification, has been studied. It has been shown, that for the highly skilled athletes and the sportsmen, it is characterized the situational and the personal anxiety low levels, that it can be recommended the situational and the personal anxiety indicators usage for the further selection of the best prepared and the trained athletes for the competitions responsible, as well as it is indicated the direction for the correction carrying out, for the purpose of the vocational sports performance improving.

The physical training (PT) high results are usually provided not only by the physical characteristics training, but also by the athlete’s and the sportsman’s emotional training [1,2]. The experts and the specialists in the field of the sports psychology are paid their great attention to the anxiety impact on the course of the whole training process, and also on the sporting events. So, the Cretti, Zajonc, Hanin, Lenders, Martens and the other ones studies are the confirmation to this fact. Thus, the carried out studies have been shown the quite different opinions of the scholars and the diverse views of the scientists on this challenge. The athlete’s and the sportsman’s anxiety is quite connected with the social consequences waiting of his success or his failure. The anxiety sensitivity is determined the individual sensitivity of the athlete and the sportsman to the competitive stress [3]. From the given practice, we know it very well, that the athletes and the sportsmen, who were wanted to be achieved the quite high result, their activity was usually broken, and that is why, they simply showed the worst results, due to the extra competition stress. But and the athletes and the sportsmen with the very low anxiety level have usually their tendency not to be performed well and to be achieved the good results, due to their insufficient and the lack of their motivation [4].

The Objective. To be studied the athletes’ and the sportsmen’s emotional state, depending on their qualification and the skill level for the efficiency and the effectiveness improvement of their competitive activities.

The Study’s Object and Methods: The adaptive possibilities, psychological and the psycho-physiological state of the 62 athletes and the sportsmen of the quite varying qualification skill and the sports specialization – the students of the 1–2 courses by «The Physical Culture» specialty of the Zhetysusky State University after E. Zhansugurov have already been studied by us. So, all the students had already been enquired the obligatory (e.g. for the incoming and the enrolled in the high school) medical examination, on the basis of which they were classified just in the «practically healthy» group, not having any contraindications for the increased physical activities.

So, the general, personal, and the situational anxiety levels study and the evaluation have been performed by the Spielberger test. This method is made it possible to be differentially measured the anxiety, as the personal property, well as the state. This study can be carried out both, as individually, well as in the groups. By each tested patient, it is made the final conclusion, which it is included the anxiety level assessment, and, if it is quite necessary, the further recommendations by his correction.

The Study Results and Their Discussion

The diagnostics at the study conducted by the general anxiety level of the highly qualification skilled athletes and the sportsmen has been shown the following results. In average, by the group, the 25 % athletes and the sportsmen have the high level, the 30 % athletes and the sportsmen – the average level of the general anxiety with the tendency to the high level, the 45 % athletes and the sportsmen have been shown the final results, corresponding to the low level anxiety. Consequently, to be performed in the sportive competition, the athletes and the sportsmen are quite suitable with the anxiety different and the various levels. This is easily explained by the personal characteristics of the athletes and the sportsmen.

At the anxiety differentiation (e.g. the personal and the situational anxiety levels selection), it has been revealed the following the specific features of the athletes and the sportsmen anxiety structure. In general, for highly skilled athletes and the sportsmen, it has been characterized by the lower level of the situational anxiety (e.g. the high level – at the 20 %, the moderate one – at the 35 %, the low one – at 45 % ones). Also, in average, in the group, the completely examined 25 % athletes and the sportsmen have had the high level of the personal anxiety, the 35 % athletes and the sportsmen – the average one with the tendency to the high level, the 40 % athletes and the sportsmen have been shown the results, corresponding to the anxiety low level. So, the tendency to the high level of the personal anxiety can be explained by the constant neuron-psychic and the mental stresses of the athletes and the sportsmen.

At the same time, the athletes and the sportsmen performance effectiveness analysis (e.g. and this is one of the key indicators in the sport) has been shown, that for the highly elite athletes and the sportsmen, having had the highest achievements (e.g. the champions, the medalists, and the prize – winners of the RK, Asian, and the world championships), it is characterized the low level of the personal anxiety. So, all the given observations are quite permitted us to be recommended the anxiety indicators usage for the necessary selection just before the responsible sportive competitions the best prepared athletes and the best trained sportsmen. Also, the anxiety structure study is quite necessary for the athletes and the sportsmen efficient correction carrying out, that, as a result, will be promoted to be boosted their performance.

It is known, that the anxiety is, as the personality trait, well as the state. So, for athletes and the sportsmen anxiety level assessment, not having had any qualification, the comparative analyses has been carried out, and the mean grouped indicator of the situational and the personal anxiety level has already been calculated. The students of the physical faculty have already been taken their participation in this study, the written inquiry and the survey have already been conducted, having used the personal Spielberger scale self. Thus, the 30 respondents have already taken their participation in the inquiry and the survey, the averageage – has been 18 years old.

At the results analyses of the anxiety level, the general total indicator by each from the subscales has been in the range from 35 up to 75 points. The conduct of our diagnostics at the general anxiety level studying of the athletes and the sportsmen has already been shown the following results. In the average, by the group, the 62 % of the athletes and the sportsmen, not having had any sportive qualification skills, have the high level, the 23 % of the athletes and the sportsmen – have the average level of the general anxiety, the 15 % athletes and the sportsmen have already shown the results, corresponding to the low level of the anxiety. The obtained practice had been shown, that at the highly – anxious athletes and the sportsmen, who wanted to be reached the high and the good results (e.g. the high level need for the sportive achievement), their sportive activity was usually broken, and, that is why, they simply showed the worst results, due to the additional and the extra competition stress.

At the personal and the situational anxiety levels selection, there have been revealed the following peculiarities and the specific features of the athletes’ and the sportsmen’s anxiety structure, not having had any sports skills qualification (table).

The Anxiety Level at the Young Athletes and the Sportsmen, Not Having Had Any Sports Skills Qualification

The Group

The State

The General anxiety

The Situational anxiety

The Personal anxiety

high

average

low

high

average

low

high

average

low

The points, mean values

69,5

41

25,5

70

44

21

69

38

30

The anxiety self – appraisal scale has been designed for the study of the examined patients’ clinical state. So, the normal levels of anxiety, by this clinical scale, have been classified as follows: the 20–40 points – is the low level, the 41–60 points – is the average level, the 61–80 points – are the high level of the anxiety. By the Zung scale, the average point has been made up 40,1 ± 1,3 in the athletes and the sportsmen group of the highly skilled qualification (Fig. 1).

pic_12.tif

Note. By the abscess – anxiety axis by the scale (e.g. in the points); by the vertical axis – the competitors number (e.g. in % from the total number).

Fig. 1. The Frequency Diagram of the Indicators Distributions of the Personal Anxiety at the Athletes and the Sportsmen of the Highly Skilled Qualification

In general, the high level of the situational anxiety has been characterized for the young athletes and the sportsmen (e.g. the high level – at the 60 % ones, the average level – at the 30 % ones, the low level – at the 10 % ones). Also, in average by the group, the examined 58 % athletes and the sportsmen have had – the high level of the personal anxiety, the 35 % athletes and the sportsmen have had – the average one with the tendency to the high level, the 7 % athletes and the sportsmen have been shown the results relevant – the low level of the anxiety. So, the tendency to the high level of the personal anxiety can be explained by the permanent neuro – psychiatric and the mental overexertion of the athletes and the sportsmen. It is also known, that the very low level of the anxiety presence, due to the insufficient and the lack of their motivation, may be tended not to be performed the good and the best results.

So, the healthy individuals and the persons distribution, by the Zung scale indicators, has been allowed to be revealed, that the overwhelming majority of the examined patients (e.g. 91,8 %) have had the low level of the anxiety, the average level of the anxiety has been defined at the 8,2 % of the examined patients. The persons with the high level of the anxiety, by the scale, among the athletes and the sportsmen have not yet been identified. The individual distribution, by the scale, beyond the border, has been in the range from 5 up to 34 points.

Thus, in result of the athletes’ and the sportsmen’s unskilled level of the anxiety study, the anxiety level, by the clinical anxiety scale, has been adequate the 41–60 points, which is the average level, the 61–80 points – has been the high anxiety level. By the scale, in the athletes and the sportsmen group, the average point has been made up 45 ± 1,2 (Fig. 2).

pic_13.tif

Note. By the abscess – anxiety axis by the scale (e.g. in the points); by the vertical axis – the competitors number (e.g. in % from the total number).

Fig. 2. The Frequency Diagram of the Indicators Distributions of the Personal Anxiety at the Athletes and the Sportsmen of the Low Skilled Qualification

So, the healthy individuals and the persons distribution, by the Zung scale indicators, has been allowed to be revealed, that the overwhelming majority of the examined patients (e.g. 62 %) have had the high level of the anxiety, the average level of the anxiety has been defined at the 23 % of the examined patients. The individual distribution, by the scale, beyond the border, has been in the range from 10 up to 70 points.

Conclusion

Thus, the conducted psycho-physiological and the metal examination has been shown, that, in general, the lower level of the situational and the personal anxiety is characterized for the highly skilled qualification athletes and the sportsmen. Among the athletes and the sportsmen, who achieved the best results, are more frequently met and more common, with the low level of the personal anxiety. The overwhelming majority of the examined patients have had the low level of the anxiety by the self – appraisal anxiety scale, in the group of the high skilled qualification athletes and the sportsmen. So, the obtained practice had been shown, that the activity was usually broken at the highly – anxious athletes and the sportsmen, who wanted to be achieved the high results (e.g. the high need for the sportive achievement), and, that is why, they showed the worst results, due to the extra and the additional competition stress. So, it had been found out at the personal and the situational anxiety levels selection, that, in general, the high level of the situational and the personal anxiety levels were characterized for the young athletes and the sportsmen. The tendency to the high level of the personal anxiety can be explained by the permanent neuron-psychical and the mental overexertion of the athletes and the sportsmen, their unwillingness to the intensive loads, the excessive and the fanatic desire to be achieved the necessary results. It had also been revealed by the self – appraisal anxiety scale, in the group of the athletes and the sportsmen, not having had any qualifications, that overwhelming majority of the examined patients had the high level of the anxiety.

Resume. The low level of the situational and the personal anxiety is quite characterized for the most skilled qualification athletes and the sportsmen, which it is allowed to be recommended the anxiety indicators usage for the selection before the responsible competitions of the best – prepared athletes, and the best – trained sportsmen. So, the anxiety structure study is quite necessary for the effective control and the efficient correction of the athletes and the sportsmen, which, as a result, will be promoted their performance growth.