Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

GEOLOGICAL-ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF THE LARGE CITIES AND THE CONCEPT OF THE GEOLOGICAL SAFETY

Kopylov I.S. 1
1 Natural-science institute of the Perm state national research university

The main and common problems for geological safety of the large cities are: development of geological processes (flooding, swamping, erosion, landslides, suffosion, karst, etc.); increase seismic danger, especially in the geodynamic active zones with a high degree of fracturing; chemical pollution of all natural environments and the accumulation of waste; the problem of underground spaces of cities, etc. On an example of the Perm, the largest industrial city of the Western Ural (800 sq. km. – the third in size city in Russia after Moscow and St. Petersburg), developed the Concept of the geological safety of the city, which shows the ways of overcoming of geological and environmental problems. The main purpose of the Concept – formation of the system of provision of geological safety at the complex development of the city, the creation of a scientifically grounded system of the forecast geological hazard reduction of geological and other risks, rational use of underground space, the decision of questions of ecology, creation of geologically safe environment for present and future generations of people.

There were developed principles and criteria for the creation of unified geo-information system of the geological environment of the city, containing the database of the engineering-geological, hydrogeological and geo-ecological information, compiled an Atlas of special geological maps. Developed a Program of geological study to 2030, with the system of program activities:

1) theoretical and organizational fundamentals of creation of the system of geological safety: theoretical, legal and methodical maintenance; cartographical provision and creation of the required mapping framework of the geological environment; geoinformation provision, creation and maintenance of a database; the study and estimation of geological and natural-technogenic conditions and factors;

2) monitoring of subsurface area: organization of a system of monitoring regional – municipal level; monitoring within the existing industrial zones and sites of urban development (territorial and object level);

3) a complex of engineering-geological and geo-ecological mapping and research activities carried out consistently in the scale of: 1:50 000, 1: 25 000, 1:10 000.

The most important targets of the Concept: increase the level of protection of the population and engineering of the objects of various levels of responsibility the territory of the city of geological hazards; reliable prediction of places manifestations and timely warning of negative consequences from the geological processes and phenomena with minimum cost and with maximum economic, social and environmental effects.

The work is submitted to the International Scientific Conference «Ecology industrial regions of Russia», the United Kingdom (London), 20-27, October 2012, came to the editorial office on 13.09.2012.