Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

THE «AJUGA GENEVENSIS L.» CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND THE BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY STUDY

Butenko L.E., Kuleshova S.A., Postnikova N.V., Lovyagina S.A.

The «Ajuga Genevensis L.» ecdysteroids and the flavonoids quantitative content has already been defined. The acute toxicity, the would healing and the antibacterial action of the «Ajuga» dry extract have already been fixed up.

Our ancient ancestors have known a lot of the herbs and the herbages, and they, moreover, have given them the very apt names. So, they have benamed and entitled the «Ajuga Genevensis L.» modest inconspicuous - looking plant, and they widely have used it for the sick people healing. And although the modern medicine still has not recovered all the «Ajuga Genevensis L.» herb health - giving properties, it seems, that, in the nearest future, especially that popularity would come to the «Ajuga Genevensis L.» one, which it is deserved much. So, the «Ajuga» plant´s botanic name origin and its meaning are quite unknown, though it has been mentioned still in the writings of Roman scholar and scientist of the 1 - st century Pliny the Elder (or Gaius Plinius Secundus). So, this medicinal herb and the country simple has been the favorite medicative and the medicinal plant of the English phytotherapeutist and the phytophysician Nicholas Culpepper. Then, he treated the injuries and healed the bruises, the internal hemorrhages, the bloody diarrheas, the tuberculosis (TBC) and the hangover (e.g. «the morning after the night before) by the syrup, having prescribed inside. In the domestic national medicine, this plant was also quite well - known long ago, and it had been mentioned in many antique and the ancient manuscripts. During the Crimean War, they medically treated the malaria by the «Ajuga», instead of the traditional quinine, but the freshly squeezed juice and the mashed leaves were applied by them to the various and the different wounds, to the burns, to the ulcers and to the injuries and to the bruises. That is why, the folk medicine and the folksy remedy are recommended the herbal potion to be medical treated against the malaria, at the simple and the bloody diarrheas, at the gastritis, at the gastric ulcer and at the duodenal ulcer, at the cholelithiasis disease, at the pulmonary tuberculosis (TBС), at the haemoptyses or the blood spitting, at the female´s genital organs inflammation, at the rheumatism, as well as the diaphoretic drug, at the catarrhal infections and the cold diseases.

So, there are about 16 «Ajuga» species in the world, which are being grown, as in Europe, well as in Asia. Now, only two «Ajuga» species are being used, as in the scientific, well as in the folk medicine and the folksy remedy - the «Ajuga Reptans» and the «Ajuga Genevensis L.». So, in the North Caucasus region, they are usually being met at the forest lawns and at the grassy glades of the forest, at the forest borders and at its edges, at the meadows, at the greenlands, and at the grasslands. It is sufficiently simple to be distinguished one species from another one: the caulis is become stink and downy only from the both sides, and there are the creeping stems at the «Ajuga Reptans», but at the «Ajuga Genevensis L.» - there is downiness along the whole stem. The herbal potion - is in the form of the washes, the lotions, and the washings are being used at the wounds, at the ulcers, at the burns, but in the form of the rinsings - at the inflammatory processes and the oral mucosa ulceration, the gingivites, and the quinsies. So, the herb juice and its herbage are being used for the corns, the freckles, and also the aphthous precipitations smearing at the children´s thrush of the mouth or at the oral moniliasis, at the bees´ sting, and also at the burns. The crumbled up and the chopped fresh leaves are usually applied to the purulent wounds, to the сuts, and to the ulcers. The potion and the infusion from the leaves or the herbs and the herbage are being applied for the hair growth strengthening.

Thus, the present paper´s purpose is the chemical composition and the pharmacological activity research of the «Ajuga Genevensis L.» herb, having grown up in the North Caucasus region.

They have already proved by the generally accepted chemical reactions, that the «Ajuga Genevensis L.» herb is being rich by the ecdysteroids, by the phenolic compounds, by the saponins, and by the other biologically active substances (BAS).

So, it had been determined, preliminarily, by the paper chromatography method with the witnesses´ authentic samples, that the luteolin was the predominant flavonoid just in the «Ajuga Genevensis L.» raw material, therefore, flavonoids quantitative definition was carried out by the methodology, having described in the pharmacopoeia, with the luteolin standard sample application [1].

So, the ecdysteroids quantitative definition has been carried out by the spectrophotometric method [2]. The obtained results have been shown in the Table 1.

Table 1 The «Ajuga Genevensis L.» herb BAS quantitative analysis results

BAS Class

The Results, %

The definition method

Extractive Substances

14,0 ± 0,29

The Gravimetric one

Ecdysteroids

6,7 ± 0,16

The spectrophotometric one

Flavonoids

3,63± 0,08

The spectrophotometric one

So, the dry extract has been prepared for the biological activity research, on the basis of the «Ajuga Genevensis L.» water extraction. The «Ajuga Genevensis L.» antibacterial action has been defined by the «wells» method. Thus, this method has been based on the tested substance diffusion just from «the wells» into the nutrient agar, having sowed out by the quite different test - cultures and the various test - crops [1].

At the obtained results assessment so, the growth inhibition zone diameter up to 10 mm, they have estimated, as the weakly expressed antibacterial action, but more, than 10 mm - as the expressed one. On this basis, the antibacterial action has been revealed at the «Ajuga Genevensis L.» water extract for all the suggested test - cultures and the test - crops, except the «Salmonella Gallinarum» and the «Proteus Vulgaris».

Table 2 The «Ajuga Genevensis L.» antibacterial action research results

The Tested Sample

The Test - Culture

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

The Growth Inhibition Zones Diameters in mm

The «Ajuga Genevensis L.» Extract

15

10

11

14

16

-

-

7

11

The symbolic representation: - the growth inhibition zone diameter is absent.
The test - сultures and the test - crops: 1 - «Staphylococcus (S.) Aureus 209»; 2 - «S. Aureus» (e.g. Makarov); 3 - «S. Aureus Type»; 4 - «S. Epidermidis Wood - 46»; 5 - «Escherichia Coli 675»; 6 - «Salmonella Gallinarum»; 7 - Proteus Vulgaris; 8 - «Bacillus Subtilis L2»; 9 - «Bacillus Anthracoides - 96».

So, they have studied the «acute» toxicity of the «Ajuga Genevensis L.» herb dry extract at the «IBA» line mice. The extract dose, which was equal to 15,150,0 mg/kg at the peroral administration, had not been causing the mice death throughout the fortnight (e.g. 14 days, or 336 hours). All these animals´ significant and the vital - important functions had been remaining just in the normal standard, that is, they all were not distinguished from the control mice´ state. Consequently, the «Ajuga Genevensis L.» dry extract is, by its essence, the hazard IV grade substance, that is, it is, practically, safe for the human person [3].

So, the «Ajuga Genevensis L.» herb dry extract influence on the skin regeneration processes have been studied at the «Wistar» line white or albino rats. They have received the linear wounds at them, by means of the dermatotomy under the ether «Rausch - anesthesia». The «Ajuga Genevensis L.» herb dry extract, in the form of the 20 % ointment, has been applied to the wounds just at once after the carried out operation, and further daily. They have practically used the comparison drug - the calendula ointment, under the similar conditions. Then, the studied ointments action obtained results have been evaluated, in comparison with each other and also with the animals´ control (medically untreated) group. So, the skin recovery rate has been defined, by means of the wound´s area measuring through the certain and the regular time intervals [4]. In the end, the obtained data had already been, statistically, processed, and then they was given and presented in the Table 3.

So, the reliable and the authentic significant reduction in the wounded and the traumatic surface area, at the « Ajuga Genevensis L.» ointment application has been observed on the 5-th test day, concerning to the control. In this animals´ group, the wounds area has been reliably and authentically less from the 7-th day, in comparison with, as the control, well as the standard. Thus, the complete healing and the recovery of the injured and the traumatized skin areas, against the background of the studied ointment, has been observed on the 16-th test day, at the calendula ointment application - on the 18-th experiment day. So, the wounds self - healing has been registered on the 22-nd day of the research, in the mice´ control group. Thus, the linear wounds medical treatment terms by the ointment, with the «Ajuga Genevensis L.» dry extract have already been shortened, in comparison with the control for 27 %.

Concerning the analogue - ointment, the experimental ointment already on the 3-rd day has shortened the wounds´ area for 37,6 %, but the calendula ointment - for 33,3 %. So, the similar picture has being observed throughout the whole tested and the experimental period. They, visually, had observed during their observations, that the wounds were quite the clean and the dry ones at the animals of the tested and the experimental groups, whereas the wounds were with the crude, twice dried up small scabs and the small crusts, but sometimes with the purulent separations in the mice´ control group. Thus, the «Ajuga Genevensis L.» herb dry extract is being possessed of the wound - healing and the bactericidal action, and it is, quite practically, safe for the human person.

Table 3 The «Ajuga Genevensis L.» herb dry extract wound - healing activity study results, М ± m, p

Observations days

Control

Calendula ointment

«Ajuga» ointment

1

4,44 ± 0,52

4,58 ± 0,41

4,63 ± 0,26

3

3,87 ± 0,54

3,53 ± 0,45

2,89 ± 0,05

5

3,08 ± 0,29

2,71 ± 0,31

2,09 ± 0,20х

7

2,49 ± 0,26

2,17 ± 0,23

1,51 ± 0,16 # x

11

1,83 ± 0,18

1,34 ± 0,18 х

0,81 ± 0,13 # х

14

1,26 ± 0,16

0,69 ± 0,12 х

0,29 ± 0,04 # х

16

0,92 ± 0,12

0,24 ± 0,06 х

0 ± 0

18

0,51 ± 0,09

0 ± 0

 

20

0,28 ± 0,03

 

 

22

0 ± 0

 

 

The notes:

x - the changes are reliable and the authentic, concerning the control, p ≤ 0,05;

# - the changes are reliable and the authentic, concerning the calendula ointment, p ≤ 0,05.

In conclusion, it is necessary to be mentioned, that the «Ajuga Genevensis L.» herb phytochemical composition study is quite the perspective direction, in the search of the BAS natural raw material sources for the creation the medical herbal remedies and the therapeutic herbal agents on their basis.

References

  1. The State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR, the XI - th is- sue. - М.: The Medicine, 1989. - Vol. 2. - P. 400.
  2. Butenko L.E., Kuleshova S.A., Shemberova A.P. The Chemical Basis of the «Serratula Quinquefolia» Some Pharmoclogical Qualities, «The Collection of the Scientific Papers.» / Pyatigorsk. SPHA, - Pyatigorsk, 2006. - The Issue 61. - P. 166-167.
  3. Berezovskaya E.V. The Chemical Substances Classification on the Residual Toxicity Parametes at the Parenteral Methods of the Introduction // The Сhemical - Pharmaceutical Journal. - 2003. - № 3.
  4. The Diseases Reproduction at the Animals for the Therapeutic - Experimentally Researches / Under the Editorship of E.V. Lazarev. - L.: The Medicine,1954. - P. 393.

The work was submitted to international scientific conference «Fundamental and applied research in medicine», France (Paris), 15-22 October 2011, came to the editorial office on 05.09.2011.