Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

THE SOCIAL STUDIES ON THE INFORMATION

Goncharov V.N.

The society informatization and the communication processes rapid growth under the conditions of the industrial neo-culture have already been become the informational approach objective penetration into the social sciences. So, the information and the information processes have become the social sciences analysis subject. That is why, it is quite possible to be singled out the three social studies on the information. These are, firstly, the studies on the social information and the social information sciences, the underlying information is the direct research and the study subject in them; secondly, these are the studies on the social communication, having considered the necessary information under the conditions of the communicative relationship; thirdly, these are the social studies on the information - oriented society formation.

Having addressed to the «information» term, the social studies authors, as a rule, are being perceived and apprehended one or another conceptual attitude and the set, having functioned in the contemporary special sciences, and, at the same time, having relied and depended on their authority, and also on the representations readiness and their development. For all this, some authors consider, that the information initial comprehension, having taken just from the scientific - especially academic discipline context, is not quite needed any special analysis, as far as, it does not matter, it would be filled with the social sense-of-mission and the social meaning. However, such kind of the position is being exerted its influence upon one or another approach formation to the social information research and the study. For example, G.V. Skorick and V.V. Cheshev have brilliantly expressed this kind of their attitude and the set, having considered the «information society» conception, and, having touched upon the «information» term. They have mentioned, that the speech would be talked not so much on the term the scientific - especially definition, having formed in the information science, as on its social filling, that is on the sense, and the «information» term application contexts in the sciences on the society. The information - this is «the knowledge uncertainty elimination measure on the subject state or on the some event» for the information theory (e.g. semiotics) [1, p. 5]. So, the discussed term is quite able to be interpreted much wider, from the philosophical point of view. For example, every interaction, as in the natural, well as in the anthropogenic and the technogenic world is quite be possible to be connected with the information processes by such scheme. All the things are being possessed by one or other qualities and the characteristics, which they are being discovered during their interaction. So, such interaction traces (e.g. from the literal mechanical traces up to the changes, as in the things qualities and the characteristics, well as in the things structure) are quite able to be presented, as the necessary information on the objects themselves, well as on their interaction processes. The nature cognition is being presented itself, in the last case, as the information receiving on it, but the interaction traces - as the information carriers [2, p. 44].

Further, G.V. Skorick and V.V. Cheshev note, that the social philosophy, to an even greater degree, is being interested in the substantial and the purposeful aspect, that is the information processes sense and the semantic filling. These factual aspects of the case, in some measure, are being discovered themselves, even in the course of the technologies management, having carried out directly through the processing and the technological equipment control. However, in the full measure, the information sense - substantially filling actuality is being affected upon the social processes organization and the management. For example, the information - «these are the data, having sifted for the specific people, for the challenges, for the targets and also for the situations - for the economists. So, the information value, and also the actual cost, having connected with the market analysis, with the computer and the machine time payment, with the external consultants application» [3, p. 164]. Thus, every control and the management are being included the information processes in themselves, but the human activity and the human behavior management is being assumed the influence upon the consciousness, in particular upon the behavior motivation and also the activity corporative objectives. «Therefore, - G.V. Skorick and V.V. Cheshev emphasize, - it is quite possible to be found the consent at all the existing differences in the information nature comprehension in the aspect, that the necessary information for the man - this is the necessary data receiving for his needs satisfaction, and at that, all these needs can be the quite different arrangements and the various plans of the actions: the psychical - emotionally, the personality, the cognitive, the occupational ones...» [2, p. 45].

So, we shall single out the focal points in the given considerations by G.V. Skorick and V.V. Cheshev. It does not matter to, how the necessary information in the sphere of the contemporary science is being comprehended, so, the «information» term is quite able to be interpreted much wider, from the philosophical point of view. For a man the information - this is, first of all, the necessary data for him, in spite of all the existing differences in the information origin essence comprehension.

It turns out, that the information and the information processes - this is information approach result to the communication. The communication is being presented itself the cognition object, having existed quite independently from the cognizing subject. But it looks the information, if the cognizing subject puts on «the information spectacles». In this case, as A.V. Sokolov mentions, the information is the information approach instrumental notion, the content and the volume of which are the quite variable ones, and they are being depended on the studied communication and the organizational phenomena. Having said quite simply, the information - this is the information approach just to the communication and to the organization. So, the information and the information approach are being formed the unity, having consisted in the aspect, that the information approach is obligatorily being connected with the information notion application, but the information is not being existed beyond the information approach [4]. Thus, the information approach is being carried out the defined and the specified methodological functions, and it is being demanded the proper and the corrected attitude to it and the corresponding application.

So, the attempt to be considered the information processes just in the society without the information essence clear - eyed comprehension is being resulted in a great deal of the confusion, in the information and the organization, the information and the communication notions identification and the authentication. «The social communication» and «the social information», «the communication system», and «the information system» have practically been become the terminological equivalents. However, yet nothing can be kept in the human mind by the information in the social studies. G.V. Skorick and V.V. Cheshev are being convinced that it is quite possible to be found the consent in the aspect, that the information for a man - this is the necessary data receiving for his needs satisfaction. So, they have not set their сhallenge - to give the «information» notion analysis, but they accepted it in the designated sense, as the simple variant, which is the quite suitable one for the subsequent theoretical reasoning and the academic arguments.

But even already this quite simple option is being needed the following comprehension: the information - this is the data or the data receiving process. In the first case, we come to the initial information sense meaning, which has been preserving right up to the middle of the XX-th century. In the second case, the information is being presented in the process meaning, and this, moreover, is needed the necessary analysis, and the subsequent explanations. Is it meant in the human mind the recipient informing process, that is the data passing just from the source to the recipient by the corresponding communication channels and the service ducts, and this is inevitably being resulted in the social processes consideration through «the information spectacles»? Or does it concern the data origin genesis, how are they getting by their method? So, the last aspect is being connected with the cognition process, with the new knowledge production, having given the data on the phenomena, their states, qualities and the characteristics, and also their changes.

Thus, the social studies general drawback and the shortcoming on the information are being concluded in the following. The «information» notion is being used uncritically, having borrowed from ones or other special sciences. Then, the nature deep philosophical - socially analysis and the information essence has not been carried out, that is why the social information comprehension has been found much difficulty. The categorial apparatus of the social information general theory philosophically has not been developed in the thorough way. All this together is being caused the necessity in the comprehensive and the all - round philosophical - socially analysis of the information challenges.

References

  1. Andreev V.N., "The Information and Modelling in the Production Management". - M. 1985.
  2. Skorick G.V., Cheshev V.V., "The Information Society and Some Peculiarities of the Identity Challenge".// «The Open and Distant Education». - 2004 - №1(13).
  3. «The Big Encyclopaedia». - М., 1994;
  4. Sokolov A.V., "The General Theory of the Social Communication". - The Collection of the Publications (CP), 2002.

The work was submitted to international scientific conference «Manufacturing technologies», (Italy, Rome, Florence), 12-19 September, 2010, came to the editorial office on 20, 2010.