Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972


Pazukhina S.V.
Educational system of school is the complicated developing system. Its essential characteristic is the conflict and weak predictability. The types of pedagogical conflicts at the works of Russian pedagogues and psychologists are singled out and analyzed at the base of different classification signs: by the character of sides, which were drawn into the conflict; by the source of conflict; by the time of passing. So, at the works of A.J.Ancypov depending on what kind of subjects enter into interaction, there are singled out conflicts at the system "pupil-pupil"; "pupil-teacher"; "pupil-parent"; "pupil-administrator"; "teacher-teacher"; "teacher-parents"; "teacher-administrator"; "parents-parents"; "parents-administrator"; "administrator-administrator" (Ancypov A.J. The prevention of conflicts at the school collective. Moscow: Vlados, 2004.). M.M. Rybakova singles out the following types of pedagogical conflicts: conflicts of activity, which appear on the occasion of educational and outside educational activity of pupil; conflicts of behavior (actions), which appear on the occasion of the pupil´s breach of school rules and outside the school rules; conflicts of relations, which appear at the sphere of emotional-personality relations of pupils and teachers (Rybakova M.M. The conflict and interaction at the pedagogic process. Moscow: Prosveshenye, 1991.). The reasons of pedagogic problems are divided into objective (social, normative-legal, generally pedagogical, organizational-active and others) and subjective (psychophysiological, psychological, social-psychological). At the works of V.E. Chydnovski and L.I. Sutormina there were established that from the side of teachers the reasons of conflicts are: inability of managing of their own negative emotions, emotional instability; the rigidity of thinking (conservatism); subjectivism at the valuation of pupils´ actions; inability or unwillingness to take into consideration the age peculiarities of pupils etc. (Chydnovski V.E., Sutormina L.I. The experience of studying the pedagogical conflict as the factor of formation of sense vital orientations of teacher // Psychological science and education. 2003. N4.)

The analysis of researches of modern scientists by the problems of pedagogical conflicts allowed us to suggest a hypothesis about that one of the reasons of inadequate reaction of teachers at the conflict situations is ingenerated value attitude to the pupil´s personality. By the value attitude we understand the steady personality-essential education, at the base of which lies the humanistic centration of pedagogical mind, emotional-positive attitude to the personality of pupil, the direction of teacher to the practical realization of value of development of the child´s personality.

Our research was carrying out by the financial support of the grant Of Russian Humanitarian Science Foundation (project N 09-06-71602 a/C). There were observed that while the traditional approach to the professional preparation of future teachers, which formed at Russian teachers´ training colleges, students have different types of attitude to the pupils: from formal and emotional to cognitive. And only several students to the end of the studying have value type of attitude to the pupils.

At the course of use special developed diagnostic program there were singled out important characteristics of every of singled out type of attitude.

Students with the formal attitude to pupils have no desire for the dedicated development of pupil´s personality. The result of pupils´ education they considered to connect with the getting of good marks. As the base means of development of pupil there was examined the training, carrying out a big number of exercises. For pedagogues of this group there was typical the impulsivity of emotional reaction to the pupils´ actions at the conflict situations up to the desire for immediately change, correction of behavior or the personality of child. Students had the prevalenceof everyday knowledge. Future pedagogues with the formal attitude to pupils at their work used communicative education. At the process of interaction with children they demonstrated inconsequent style of communication, at the conflict they could change their tone of voice. With respect to the pupils who were participants of conflict teacher more often stood indifferent, cold, suspended "adult".

For the students with emotional-positive attitude to pupils there was typical situational interest to the studying of process of personality´s development of pupil. At the practice they manifested election emotional attitude to children, singled out "favorites", who they treats kindly, forgive them a lot of things, stood at their side at the conflict. At their work future teachers of this group used mainly concrete knowledge that were gotten by their own experience, imitated teacher, used prepared algorithms, which were digested at the institute of higher education, not always correlating their own actions with the age possibilities and individual peculiarities of pupils. Future pedagogues gave their preference to traditional methods of teaching with the including of elements of interest and playing methods. They had the prevalence of empirical style of giving the material. At the process of interaction with pupils there were used democratic and liberal styles of communication. At the conflict situations such pedagogues treated pupils either from position "From above" (the position of patronizing parent) or from position "from below" adaptation. The high level of development of emotional component of attitude in the aggregate with recognition of shortage of their own knowledge and experience leaded to that future pedagogues were afraid to do harm by their interference to the relations of pupils; at the whole number of cases that leaded to the helplessness of students, nonintervention into the conflict.

Students with the cognitive attitude to pupils manifested expressed interest to the digesting of knowledge, which opens different aspects of pupils´ development, the problems of their teaching and education. At the practice teachers of this group had dominant desire for use scientific knowledge and adequate means of pedagogical activity. Pedagogues had appearing emotions that reflected cognition activity of children, the presence of fast and right answers, successes, progress of pupils. Motivational installations of students were characterized with the positive mood to work with children, the desire for development of personality qualities and abilities of pupils. At the relations with the children they had the prevalence of authoritarian and democratic style of communication. The position, which were stand with the respect of pupil at the conflict situation was the position "near, but not together". Future pedagogues with the cognitive attitude to the pupils at their work often used the methods of problem teaching. The teaching that was realized by them undoubtedly had the developmental character, but it could not be called personality-oriented at all, because the questions of the calculation of individual peculiarities of children there were not attended a lot.

Students with the value attitude to pupils had intelligent, deep, wide interests, which are connected with the studying of the conformities to development of child´s personality. They carried out the choice and the transformation of digested knowledge, demonstrated the variability of their use and the width of the carrying over to the new conditions at the practice. At their work pedagogues proceeded from the interests of concrete pupil and from the perspectives of his development. The position that was stood by the students of this group with the respect of pupil at the conflict situation was the position "near", the position of friend, helper. Teacher tried to come apart the reasons of appeared conflict, to understand the motive of behavior of each of the conflicted sides. There was the prevalence of democratic style of communication. The basic tactics of behavior consisted in the unobtrusive, natural creation of conditions that requires from the pupil the development of his own abilities at the constructive solution of conflict. Its general task students of this group considered the organization of develop personal-oriented education, which promotes the development of pupils´ personalities. There were used different technologies: dialogue, research, information-communication, active, technologies of problem education, technologies of individualization and differentiation of education. Pedagogues oriented themselves to the personality model of building relations with pupils with the point of rest to their interests, abilities, subject experience. At the process of teaching and education of pupils students tried attend a lot to all pupils of the class, independently from the characteristics of their progress. Future teachers with the value attitude had big interest to the analysis of their own experience. Difficulties at their professional activity they considered as the consequence of inadequacy or absence of means of their realization. For some students with value attitude to the personality of pupil there had been opened the horizon of their own professional activity, specific way of organization and value and normative layer, which required not only reflection but also transcending.

At the course of forming stage of experiment we have proved that the conversion to the value type of attitude there is carrying out more effective while the realization of complex of interconnected psychological conditions, to which were rated following: 1) including the own experience of future pedagogues to the structure of educational situation as the condition of recognition and change of attitude to the personality of pupil; 2) mediation of forming of value attitude of future teachers to the personality of pupil changing the activity of students; 3) organization of combined reflexive communication between the subjects of educational process (pedagogues and students) as the environment of forming the general group fund of value-essence formations; 4) broadening and conversion of value-essence sphere of future pedagogues into the studying-professional generality of pedagogues and students as the space of cultivation of senses and personality values of participants of educational process.

This work was represented at the international scientific conference "The problems of international integration of national educational standards", Paris-London, April 23 - May 1, 2010. Came to the Editor-office at 22.03.2010.