Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972


Shayahimova R.K.
In this article there were represented the results of reforming of German system of preparation of pedagogical personnel subject to conditions of Bolognese process. There were revealed base tendencies at the development of modern pedagogical education in Germany. There was drawn a conclusion to the effect that realized domestic and all-European measures, which are directed to the improvement of the system of preparation of students have one market selectivity that consist in rising of the quality of preparation of specialists and creation of more favorable conditions for their professional and personality development.
The research of the problem of preparation of pedagogical personnel in Germany allowed revealing base perspective directions of development of German pedagogical education in conditions of Bolognese process.

One of the leading tendencies of development of pedagogical education in German is the search for optimal correlation between centralized and decentralized government of the system of institution of higher education that carry out preparation of pedagogical personnel.

Germany is the federative state that includes in its structure 16 lands, which are its subjects. According to the constitution the competences at the sphere of realization of state powers and carrying out the state tasks are distributed among the federal center and subjects. Federal lands have special privileges, the sovereignty at the sphere of culture (kulturhoheit). That means that the solving of the educational problems, science and culture mainly concern to the competence of lands. Federal lands have the right of lawmaking at the sphere of school, high education, education of adults and at the sphere of rising the qualification. Therefore the reception of legislative acts and direction of education mainly concern to the sphere of competence of lands. Such decentralization of direction of educational system of German, on one hand ensures variety, competitive and allows orienting at the decision of local problems, and force to maximally take into consideration the peculiarities of federation´s subjects and to organize the process of preparation of specialists according to their concrete necessities, but on the other hand causes the big number of differences at the educational system.

Over the last decades the federation in their representors at the different structural institutes has broadened their rights and competencies at the sphere of professional education and scientific researches. This searched out legislative confirmation at the different articles of constitution. The manifestation of attempt to find optimal correlation between the centralization and decentralization of direction of pedagogical education in Germany is the development by CMC the federal lands of the standard of content of pedagogical education by the subjects of pedagogical cycle. In spite of that fact that this standard has recommendation character, it is the principle guideline for ministries and educational institutes of federal lands. The meaning of this document is that it allows formulating the goals and tasks of pedagogical education, which should be carried out at the process of preparation of teachers. In addition it creates the base for the verification of the level of progress of these goals and simultaneously values the quality of carrying out the assigned task. By the ministries of Culture of federal lands there was taken an attempt with the help of this standard to ensure, to rise the control of quality of pedagogical education and to coordinate the activity of institutes of higher education by the preparation of pedagogical personnel. Other manifestation of this tendency is the reception by C.M.C. of federal lands the agreement of preparation and attestation of teachers in Germany, which became the base for the agreement "About mutual recognition of documents about teachers´ education"[1].

One of the peculiarities of preparation of teachers in Germany is that fact that the specialization of teachers is carrying out not only according to teach subjects, but also to type of school. As school educational in Germany is the business of federal lands, then each of them has the right to organize the preparation of teachers of different specialization according to the type of school that have places at this territory. Therefore that the accepted agreement ensures the defined unity and comparability of the systems of qualifications of teachers, CMC singled out 6 types of specialization of pedagogical personnel that received the recognition federally. Besides this, the stimulus to the centralization of the system of higher education of Germany, including pedagogical, was caused by the initiative of creating to 2010 year the European space of higher education. At the limits of this initiative the federal center recommended to carry in considerable changes into the process of preparation of pedagogical personnel, which are assisted to European collaboration about the guaranteeing of the educational quality.

Thereby in Germany there was made an attempt to find optimal correlation between the centralization and decentralization of direction of system of higher education at modern conditions. Therefore now existed system of direction of education in Germany is often called the cooperative federalism.

Other tendency of development of pedagogical education in Germany is connected with the creation of new structures at the institutes of higher education, the activity of which is directed to the optimization of the process of preparation of teachers at the institutes of higher education and to the coordination of activity of different institutes that assist at the teachers´ preparation.

Let´s register that at the seventies at the majority of federal lands there occurred the integration of high pedagogical schools with the universities. It caused the changes in the structure of preparation of teachers for all types of schools and gave to the pedagogical education the new status, concentrating it at the universities. But while this there were not taken into consideration of organization of process of preparation of teachers, because at the universities there was no such organizational structure as pedagogical department of faculty. In connection with it the conference of chancellors of institutes of higher education at the May of 1995 required to carefully revise modern forms of preparation of pedagogues, to establish pedagogical centers under the universities and to revive pedagogical institutes side by side with the universities or under the universities.

Indeed commissions by the questions of education of separated federal lands also recommended creating the centers of the preparation of teachers, which would solve the problems of practice-oriented and professional preparation of pedagogical personnel into the cooperation with the school and university.

One more tendency of development of pedagogical education is the integration of practice into the process of education at the university. The preparation of teachers in Germany consists in 2 phases. The first phase is the teaching in the institute of higher education includes theoretic preparation of future teachers. Second phase is the student practice (referendary) begins after the end of teaching at the university and after the passing of the first state exam and organizationally is not connected with the first phase of preparation. Nowadays such approach to the organization of preparation of pedagogical personnel is severely criticized from the society, because first and second phase of preparation of teachers occur practically independently from each other. The first phase is oriented mostly to the theoretic preparation at the institute of higher education and doesn´t allow students to correlate studying theory with the practice and to verify the rightness of the chosen profession. The rupture between phases of education lowers the effectiveness of preparation of teachers. According to it at many pedagogical institutes of German there are taken attempts to integrate the practical component into a process of theoretical preparation at the institute of higher education.

In the capacity of one more tendency of development of pedagogical education can be called the broaden of the list of pedagogical specialties, including professions of social pedagogue, social psychologist, pedagogue-consultant, pedagogue-therapeutist, pedagogue of the center of social rehabilitation, teacher of corrective classes, teacher for the work with the gifted children etc.

The tendency on all-European scale is the introduction of multilevel system of preparation of teachers according to the requirements to the participants of Bolognese process [2].

At the limits of multilevel model of education after the ending of undergraduate (1 level) graduating students have an opportunity to leave the institute of higher education and start a professional activity. It should be noted that successful passing of the program of first level ensures getting of professional qualification, but is not a condition for getting a teacher qualification. The right to hold office of teacher gives a studying at second level with the aim of getting internationally recognized academic degree of master and professional qualification of higher level, including qualification of teacher. On the expiration of studying at the limits of multilevel model is also possible the writing and defence of a thesis by the one of chief subject that is provided teaching at the third (doctor) level.

Next tendency is the development and improvement of existed system of continuous (after diploma) pedagogical education as the realization of conception of studying during all life, ensuring the possibility of constant rising of professionalism level of pedagogues. According to it in Germany there were started to function carefully organized and developed programs, which are directed to the systematic rising of qualification of pedagogical personnel or getting by them supplementary specialties.

Thereby revealed tendencies of development of pedagogical education in German, testify to that fact that the development of system of preparation of teachers occurs at two directions. On the one hand there are realized domestic measures, which are directed to the improvement of system of preparation of specialists, and on the other hand there are realized measures that satisfy requirements, which are demanded to the participants of Bolognese process.

In spite of that carrying out reforms have different character, they all have one market selectivity - to rise the quality of preparation of specialists, to create more favorable conditions for their professional and personality development.


  1. Gegenseitige anerkennung von lehramtdprufungen und lehramtsbefahigungen //
  2. Кruger h-h Pädagogen im Studium und Beruf: empirische Bilanzen und Zukunftsperspektiven (heinz-hermann krueger (hrsg.). Auflage. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag fur Sozialwissenschaft, 2004. 300 p.
  3. Terhart E. Perspektiven der Lehrerbildung in Deutschland/abschlu.bericht der von der kultusministerkonferenz eingesetzten kommission.- Weinheim: Beltz, 2000. 167 p.