Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972


Sashchenko N.P.

It is known, that the logic of educational process assumes presence of three interconnected its the basic making - training, education and development. Not going deep into pedagogical "cunnings" of educational process, we shall note importance of the psychological nature of process of fastening of knowledge. The knowledge can be acquired by the person only when it is realized, пережито and is finished with a level of skills. Process of comprehension, experience and repeated recurrence of available knowledge is realized in active forms of employment. These forms are various and differ from each other not only methodical and didactic security, but also object of influence, to be exact, side of structure of the person on which influence of the teacher is directed.

The methods practically focused, fixing behavioral skills, skills, by virtue of the specificity are innovative. Games concern to them, business, role games, dialogues of personnel´s, creative works, role training, case study, etc.

Case study is a method of the analysis of concrete situations. The purpose case study is fastening knowledge by means of working off of skills of practical use of conceptual circuits, and also skills of the group analysis of problems and decision-making.

The purpose of an audience is development on the basis of the analysis of a concrete situation and offered analytical materials of the optimal the political decision, and also offers on its support with application of methods of political technologies. With this purpose specially picked up actual material on one concrete event is given students.

Preliminary remarks, which should be meant at case studying.

Studying materials case, the student can meet difficulties of perception and the analysis of the big material on volume. It is not necessary to be afraid of huge quantity of an actual material. The teacher suggests, as a rule, the greatest possible volume of the information with purpose to help to make own representation about the political project.

The task of the student, the student to be adjusted for work with the information in design, instead of in the current mode of the reporter. The student is not obliged to remember all facts and figures. He should learn after great volume of the information, which is offered by authors (and the life shows this information in the even greater volume, in the "crude" kind) to see the tendency to catch a direction to feel nuances and to plan the basic algorithm of actions. It, as to the rational side.

Besides it is important for student or student to be able to present itself the artist who is going to write a cloth; to be able to look at a material from height of the bird´s flight. Especially it is important for the PR-expert, which work - creative. One of the basic features of the political scientist, and in particular the PR-expert will be what to work to him falls a mental level - with installations, stereotypes, social representations of the population. The purpose and a professional duty of the expert on Public Relations is not limited only to creation something such, that will strongly be printed in public consciousness. He should not only think up and create, but also realize all consequences of the creativity.

Technology case study

Employment is carried out depending on type chosen the teacher case. Types case study are subdivided:

By result of carrying out of the analysis on analytical (allocation of problems, construction of a field of problems) and design (development of projects and scheduling);

As a source of the information - on empirical (experience of the teacher, practical activities of students, the description real cases in the literature) and theoretical (construction of model of a situation on the basis of theoretical positions);

On the subject of representation of the information - on student´s (individual experience, group designing) and teaching (if there is an experience of practical or consulting activity).

The teacher shows to students the concrete situation demanding a collective estimation and collective decision-making. The end result of work of group also is subject mark with the help of a reflection.

The technology case study is good check of the theory, synthesis of the theory with practice. Therefore case study theoretical preparation on problems which are present at it should precede discussion.

One day prior to employment (as a rule, in the evening) case study it is distributed to students who get acquainted with it individually. Then for other day educational group (at 15-20 the person) break into 3-4 subgroups (on 4-5 person in everyone). Within 1,5-2 hours per subgroups in different audiences it is discussed case study and collectively solve its tasks. After that the group gathers again with its full complement and discussion begins. From each subgroup students act and give reason for a position. Each subgroup discusses the point of view not only the, but also the colleagues. The teacher coordinates a course of discussion, directing it, necessarily, on the decision of the put educational purpose. At the end of discussion the teacher assesss each subgroup and each student.

So, as it is seen, it is possible to allocate two major stages of the analysis case is: а) individual preparation; б) discussion in a subgroup and discussion in group.

Recommendations and advice to students

а) Individual preparation

1) In the evening before employment to read methodical material first time fluently to receive the general representation about sequence of events and about a stated problem.

2) To re-read methodical material it is so much times, how many it is necessary to isolate a problem, to define the responsibility, sights, positions and mutual relations of the characters working in methodical material; to understand economic and political conditions in which the plot methodical material is developed. It is useful to do thus notes which then will help at discussion case with an audience.

3) To fix in writing those questions which can be lifted during discussion case in an audience.

4) To reveal attitudes{relations} between the events described in case, and behaviour of characters case, with concepts and the theories stated in lectures and textbooks. Cases enable to check up and better to understand applicability and limitation of concepts and theories by the appendix of abstract ideas to real situations.

5) To formulate alternative ways of the decision of the problems described in case; to name possible priorities of these alternatives, switching and possible barrier on a way of their successful realization; to specify the most comprehensible way of the decision of the problem described in case.

б) Discussion in a subgroup and discussion in group

Cases should be discussed in an atmosphere which allows to exchange ideas and sights freely and frankly. The teacher directly is responsible for a course and an atmosphere of discussion. The problem to object or criticize opinions discussing is assigned to students. However, the teacher can interfere with discussion with the purpose to clear that - or, to encourage timid members of group to participation in discussion, to stop monopoly the right on statements.

Students in turn, should be active participants of discussion, instead of simply passively be present on discussion. One of the main advantages case study will be, that in discussion the various points of view and participants positions collide try to assert.

Participation in discussion in an informal friendly atmosphere - good training for those who behind thresholds of a class room will deal with complex peripetias of a real life. Well prepared students actively participating in discussion, receive an opportunity not only to raise the skill to communicate and develop analytical abilities, but also to raise the creative potential and to develop the intuition, so necessary politics, to the head, the manager.

3) Students should not concentrate only on searches of one variant of the decision of a problem. As a rule, it does not happen it is unique the true decision or the simple answer on put in case questions. It is not necessary to limit also discussion concerning case only to criticism of its characters. Students should find out, that was correct, and that is not present and why; after that it is important to offer the decision on the basis of knowledge and the got experience.

So, Case study as the method of the analysis of concrete situations, is not game, but includes game elements: breakdown at commands, reviewing, competition on effective decision-making. This method has the specificity: at collective development of the decision there are no the roles modelling activity of separate persons.

Participation in discussion in an informal friendly atmosphere - good training for those who behind thresholds of a class room will deal with complex peripetias of a real political life.

Following the innovative purpose of education, it is important for teacher to give not so much concrete knowledge, how many, having armed with them to help the student to learn better itself, the opportunities to adapt for a dynamical reality and to realize the creative potential.

To the student as active part, the subject of educational process, important, operating the received information, to apply the knowledge in a concrete educational, game situation and to fulfil professional skills. Thus the student possesses a unique opportunity - at each grade level he checks own forces, abilities, opportunities.

The work is submitted to the Scientific International Conference «The new educational technology and the organization of training», Italy (Rimini - Rome - San Marino), March 29 - April 5, 2008, came to the editorial office on 28.05.2008.