The level of perception of one and the same objective danger can differ. The most optimal one seems to be such a level of risks feeling which guarantees self-control, prudence and foresight, that, however, corresponds more to a mature than young age. It goes without saying, that a supernormal risk feeling is not the best ground for normal hygienic activity formation. Never the less, such risk perception level is also able to influence healthy life mode development positively despite different tragically radical behaviour patterns induction danger.
The integrated research carried out by us in different domains of modern Russia and near-abroad countries is indicative of the fact that the most unacceptable one from all points of view is an undervalued or total absence of real danger perception.
Theoretical apprehension by hygienists of the safety (or danger) perception degree value, as well as the analysis on the same ground of those alterations and shifts which take place in hygienic needs formation, and, as a result, - in the formation of hygienic activity of Russian youth, remains unsolved and, in many cases, misunderstood problem. To our opinion, its scientific solution is an urgent backbone component of medico-social direction of preventive medicine.
The study of the degree of perception of some or other objectively existing of health loss risks in various social groups can be solved by means of calculating various integral estimates (on the analogy with the applied in social psychology "fear indices"). Obtaining this sort of hygienic fear indices is of great importance for clearing up such an essential feature of public health of separate youth groups as the potential of hygienic activity.
The results of hygienic fears index measuring for different groups of young people can be matched with these groups´ public health showings, with the incidence of various forms of deviant behaviour in them, with the environmental pollution and other features of a specified domain state. Undoubtedly, it will give the opportunity to discuss the place of such an index of hygienic risks perception among other showings of youth state in the level of various social, professional, demographical and other groups from now forth. Such an index can serve as the criterion of a certain "general tonus" of the public health of youth, its orientation, aiming at objective dangers. As a matter of principle it can be thought of as an integral public criterion of social integration of young people, the capability to get through the problems which they face in their life. On the ground of the given approach one might compose "crisis maps" of the domains recording the land areas of increased medico-social risk degree.
The carried out by us research show that literal perception of hygienic significant risks often is more important than anything else, because it testifies to the state of young people´s capabilities to solve permanently appearing problems of social growth, to keep and strengthen their health. Or to incapability of young people to solve these problems with allowable to the society methods and respectively to degrade. The features of this ability, one of the showings of which must be the index of hygienic fears, can be not less important than recording the physical, purely biological state of the youth´s health.
The scientific sense of the hygienic fears problem investigation is deeply intertwined with the described in the last years by social psychologists problem of "catastrophism", which is one of the foundational modern problems of social life.
Very different fears and the ability to apperceive various risks adequately or inadequately were and will always be a powerful social regulator. It is a weapon not only in the fight for the Nation´s health, but also a weapon of political and ideological struggle.
- Savelyev S.I., Zaitsev V.M., Kotova G.N., Vishnyakov N.I. Estimation of hygienic activity of modern youth on the results of extended statistical analysis of life-style/ Under the editorship of Academician of RAMS, Professor Onishchenko G.G. - L., 2004. - p.416.
- Yadov V.A. Structure and motive impulses of socially anxious consciousness/ "Sociological magazine", 1997, №3.