Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972

DYNAMICS OF ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC INDICES OF THE COGNITIVE PATHOLOGY AT SCHIZOPHRENICS WITH PAROXYSMAL AND CONTINUOUS CLINIC COURSE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF PHYCHOPHARMACOTHERAPY.

Filippova N.V.
Schizophrenia is one of the most important problems both for modern clinical psychiatry, and for the science dealing with human brain in whole. According to specialists´ estimate, approximately 1% of all population in industrially developed countries are subjected to this disease (Sedok B., Caplan G.I., 2002).  

Schizophrenia is heterogeneous mental disorder with wide range of disturbances in  cognitive processes.  The investigation of bioelectrical activity of brain could ease the  objectification of these difficult and varied disturbances and  prediction for a therapeutic response.

The aim of this work was the   investigation of cerebral rhythms (theta, alpha and beta) according to the indices of size, topography, asymmetry and synchronization in  every frequency range in order to identify the relationship between rhythms and their synchronization  in space-hold and in a cognitive load. And also the development of differentiated statements for psycho pharmacotherapy of schizophrenics adjusted for indices of clinical estimate of their states and electroencephalographic parameters´ dynamics.

Materials and methods: EEG- investigation of 148 paranoid schizophrenia patients, receiving antipsychotic therapy  in the condition of in-patient facility was carried out.

Psychotic manifestations were qualified in 75 patients (1 group) within the paroxysmal  schizophrenia on MCB-10, 73 patients (2 group) had ceaseless character of clinic course. 

71 patients (main group), of which  38 (53,5%) were women and 33 (46,5%)  men, had got atypical neuroleptics (risperidone, quetiapine, olanzapine ), and 77 (control group)- 37 (48,05%) were women and 40 (51,95%) men got  haloperidol. All preparations were prescribed in the form of monotherapy in an  adequate  therapeutics dosages, in some cases clozapin was connected in order to rapid relief of marked  dissomny disturbances. 38 mentally  healthy  probationers composed the control group. All  probationers were right handed. EEG mapping was carried out in case of getting to the in-patient facility  in 7 days after repealing  preparations with the help of electroencephalography «MICHAR - EEG - 2000». The results of  investigations of  spectrum capacity on ranges   of theta, alpha and beta, averaged according to groups of  probationers for recording in a background and in carrying out of cognitive test (calculation according to Crepelin), and also analysis of coefficient index of interhemispheric  asymmetry  were used in the work (KA).   

Results of carried out investigations and conclusions: All EEG rhythms are symmetric and synchronic both on phase, and on frequency in a normal position against the background. In schizophrenia expressed asymmetry of cerebral rhythms and decreasing of synchronization level in comparison with norm are marked. In  patients with paroxysmal clinic course,  the asymmetry and lack of coincidence of EEG vibrations by phase and frequency are the most expressed, that testifies about  «break» of interactions of grey matters, functional disorganization of cerebral processes and the possibility of psychopharmacological correction.   

There is a complex picture of interhemispheric asymmetry in the patients with chronic clinical course, expressed  for each EEG rhythm  in different way. And also sharp reduction  of capacity  of all  EEG  rhythms  corresponds to steady pathological condition and difficulties of  treatment in comparison with two other groups of probationers.   

On analyzing the topography of spectrum capacity, the distinctive peculiarity of EEG dynamic under the influence of haloperidol was the normalization of zonal differences due to increasing of alpha-rhythm, mainly in occipital spheres. During all period of therapy, the amplification slowly-wavel spectrum with an accent in forehead spheres was noted. Atypical antipsychotics were also provoked the normalization of regional peculiarities of EEG in amplification of alpha-range, but without distinctive dynamics or with decreasing theta-rhythm.

The preparations of this group have some differences from haloperidol, and also slightly differ between themselves both according to beginning of therapeutic effects, and according to topic and dynamic of neurophysiologic indices. The received data should efficiently be applied in choosing of the method of treatment, planning of therapeutic tactics, in solving of prediction questions and forecast of psychopharmacotherapical effectiveness.


The article is admitted to the International Scientific Conference « Priority directions of Science and Technology development: medical technologies », Greece, 2007, March 20-30; came to the editorial office on 13.03.07
Table 1. LF value in blood serum (ng/ml) in patients older than 60 with different bronchopulmonary pathology in comparisons:

Disease

Persons older than 60

Persons younger than 60

n

Average concentration of lactoferrin (ng/ml) in blood serum (M + m)

n

Average concentration of lactoferrin (ng/ml) in blood serum (M + m)

Community-acquired pneumonia

46

1597,1 + 121,4

р5<0,01

р7<0,01

32

2566,4 + 208,2

р<0,01

р1<0,01

р2<0,01

COPD

COPD

39

1107,6 + 37,7

р4<0,05

р7<0,01

29

1479,9 + 22,1

р<0,01

р3<0,01

Infective bronchial asthma

35

1006,9 + 32,8

р4<0,05

р6<0,05

р7<0,01

21

1345,4 + 20,6

р<0,05

Carcinoma of lung

35

1021,3 + 74,2

р4<0,05

р7<0,01

20

1655,4 + 65,3

р<0,01

р1<0,02

Practically healthy persons

22

1878,5 + 301,2

30

1176,0 + 67,9

p - relative to practically healthy people under 60; р1 - relative to young people with COPD; р2 - relative to young people with carcinoma of lung; р3 - relative to young people with infective bronchial asthma; р4 - relative to practically healthy people older than 60; р5 - relative to elderly patients with COPD and carcinoma of lung; р6 - relative to elderly patients with COPD; р7 - relative to young patients with correspondent nosologic form of the disease.



Table 2.Correlation relationships between LF levels in blood serum and immunogram showings at bronchopulmonary pathology in the elderly:

Correlation relationships

CAP

COPD

N(I)BA

CL

rlf- leucocytes (abs)

­­ ↑↑ p<0,01

­↑ p<0,01

­­↑↑ p<0,01

­↑↑­ p<0,01

rlf - lymphocytes (%)

­↑ p<0,01

0

­↑ p<0,01

↑­ p<0,01

rlf - lymphocytes (abs)

­­↑↑ p<0,01

↑­ p>0,05

↑↑­­ p<0,01

↑↑­­ p<0,01

rlf - Т-lymphocytes  (%)

­ ↑ p<0,01

0

­ ↑ p<0,01

­ ↑ p<0,01

rlf - Т-lymphocytes (abs)

­­ ↑↑ p<0,01

­↑ p>0,05

↑↑­­ p<0,01

­­↑↑ p<0,01

rlf - Т-helpers  (%)

­­ ↑↑ p<0,01

­ ↑ p>0,05

­­↑↑ p<0,01

­­ ↑↑ p<0,01

rlf - Т-suppressors  (%)

↑­ p>0,05

0

­↑ p>0,05

↑­ p>0,05

rlf- В-lymphocytes  (%)

­ ↑ p>0,05

­ ↑ p>0,05

­ ↑ p>0,05

­ ↑ p>0,05

rlf- В-lymphocytes (abs)

0

0

0

0

rlf - Ig G (мг %)

↓ p>0,05

0

0

­↑ p>0,05

rlf - Ig А (мг %)

­ ↑ p>0,05

0

0

↓ p>0,05

rlf- Ig М (мг %)

­ ↑ p>0,05

­ ↑ p>0,05

↓p>0,05

­ ↑p>0,05

r - correlation relationship, lf - lactoferrin, 0 - lack of correlation relationship

­↑ - positive correlation relationship, ↓ - negative correlation relationship

­↑­, ↓ -  r < 0,5 (weak),­↑­↑­­, ↓↓ - r =  0,5 - 0,7 (moderate)