Scientific journal
European Journal of Natural History
ISSN 2073-4972


Minina V.I., Lunina A.A., Akhmatyanova V.R.

The nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) - these are the chromosomes´ sites, having contained the ribosomal genes. The NORs are able to be visualized, having used the staining by the silver nitrate. The silver ions are capable to be connected with the sour non - histone proteins, having presented in the NORs. The AgNORs - proteins are being detected, as the clearly outlined black zones, which are localized inside the nuclei in the light microscope [1]. The interest to the AgNORs - proteins investigation has been increased, having begun since the 80 - es of the ХХ century, when the facts of the sharply increase of their sizes have become known in the cancer cells in comparison with the normal ones [2]. The blood donors with the Alzheimer´s disease [3], the Down´s syndrome [4], and the patients with the human immunodeficiency virus [5] have been further investigated. It has been determined, that the AgNOR size is the rate marker of the cellular cycle [6], and it is reflected the degree of activity of the ribosomal genes. The AgNORs changes under the exposure of the unfavorable chemical factors and the radiation are actively being investigated [7, 8]. The significant role of the NORs, as the adaptive element has been shown, and it also has been determined, that the biggest degree of development of the nucleolar organizer system of species has been connected with the extreme conditions of its existence [9].

In this connection, the AgNORs study in the blood lymphocytes of the indigenous and newly come population of the Western Siberian industrial region has been become the aim of our investigation.

Materials & Methods

290 inhabitants of the Kemerovo region, having lived in the Tashtagolsky (121people), the Belovsky (79 people) regions, and in the city of Kemerovo (90 people) have been examined. The Tashtagolsky region - this is a place, where the representatives of the indigenous and smaller Siberian people - shorczes are compactly living. The inhabitants of the Bekovo village - are the representatives of the other smaller people - teleuts have been examined in the Belovsky region. The Siberian newly come population is predominated among the city´s inhabitants of Kemerovo, in connection with this, the Caucasoids have been examined. The blood lymphocytes cultivation, the handling of the specimens, their staining, and the AgNORs sizes analysis have been conducted, in accordance with the earlier - described methods by us [10]. And, at last, the AgNOR area/Total Nuclear area (NORa/ TNa) in 50 cells from each blood donor have been estimated.

Results & Discussion

The NORa/TNa average size in the lymphocytes, having stimulated PHA has been made up 17,61 ± 0,34% at the inhabitants of the Tashtagolsky region, 13,33±0,27% - at the inhabitants of the Belovsky region, but at the city´s population of Kemerovo - 11,83±0,18%. It is quite known, that the studied value is depended, in the first place, on the stimulation level one or another type of the cells in the cellular culture. The nucleus diameter of the stimulated cells, in accordance with the literary data, is being varied from 7 up to 30 microns [11]. In our investigation, the cells´ nucleus diameter has been made up, in average, at the inhabitants of the Tashtagolsky region - 14 microns, at the city´s inhabitants of Kemerovo - 12,8 microns, at the inhabitants of the Belovsky region - 13,1 microns. All these differences are, statistically, reliable (e.g. р<0,01). Then, the NORa/TNa comparison in the cells with same nucleus diameter has been conducted. In the big cells, with the nucleus diameter 14 and more microns, the NORa/TNa has been made up 16,56% in the group of shorczes, and 10,57% - in the group of Caucasians. In the small cells, with the nucleus diameter less, than 10 microns, the NORa/TNa has been made up 19,2% at shorczes, and 11,78% - at Caucasoids. Thus, the differences in NORa/TNa could be observed, even in the comparison with the cells, having the similar size.

This parameter may be changed also by the other factors, such as the measured cells number, cases number and ages of the studied individuals. As you know, this parameter (NORa/TNa) is related directly to the metabolic state (e.g. mostly, anabolism) of the cells, and, not or less, it is related with the ethnicity; per consequent, it is largely used in the in vivo evaluation of the cancerous cells [12].

So, it is quite impossible to exclude also, that the discovered difference in the NOR expression at the inhabitants of the Kuzbass different regions is connected with the adaptation peculiarities to the unfavorable conditions of the inhabitation, as, it is quite known, that the shorczes´ residence territory (e.g. the Tashtagolsky region) is characterized by the unfavorable radio - ecological situation (e.g. the high level content of radon in the living accommodation).

This investigation has been supported by the program of Presidium of the Russian Academy of Science «The People and Cultures Adaptation to the Changes of the Environment, Social and Anthropogenic Transformations»; by the RFBR grant, 07-04-96031-r_ural_a; by the Russian Federal Agency for Science and Innovations (contract 02.512.11.2233).


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The work was submitted to international Environmental Forum « Ecology of the big city», St. Petersburg, Russia, April 18-20,2009, came to the editorial office 26.02.2009