Modern achievements of the general psychology, age psychology, and psychology of the person, social psychology, and differential psychology, psychology of abilities and to psychology of training to foreign languages give the right for the methodologists of Russian language as foreign to use data of psychological sciences in practical technique Russian language as foreign more purposefully.
The adult person, including into educational activity, acts in a new role of the pupil. But this new role differs from his role carried out several years ago. The main thing is the changing of their motives of training because knowledge are considered by them as means of achievement of vital plans, the successes, the certain social status. The motivation of cognitive activity of the adult, its activity and purposefulness is defined by the personal importance of knowledge.
Hence, process of training of adult students has:
- to base on previous educational, linguistic, life experience;
- to form at students´ knowledge, skills, methods of educational activity;
- to open sense of educational activity of each grade level;
- to develop professional qualities of the person of the future teachers-specialists in Russian philology (speech, pedagogical, etc.).
In our opinion, working with adult pupils it is necessary to consider:
- the level of the previous education received on the native land;
- the culture of the country of the arrived students;
- the communicative needs of the adult pupils caused by a choice of their specialty.
It is necessary to note that the position of the adults in relation to educational activity is a position of the person actively making the decision in conformity with the internal values, motives, belief which have been generated during previous activity - educational or labor (Ananiev B.G., Bozhovich L.I., T.K.Donskaja, I.B.Ignatova, Kuljutkin J.N. etc).
The efficiency of educational activity depends not only on cleanly psychological factors, but also from character of a material so its form represents some language which it´s used for transfer to the information [7:186-187].
The transformation of the received information occurs in thinking and is made at a verbally-logic level by means of language, signs and symbols. On the basis of this B.G. Ananiev has allocated three kinds of thinking:
1) subject which is made with the actions expressioning the ideas;
2) evidently-shaped (which is made with search of natural communications on an evident material);
3) verbally-logic which bases on a verbal material .
It is necessary also to consider psychological features of perception, fixing and preserving the information. Reflective, identifying and modeling functions of a brain help to check the information in system of an available knowledge.
The training adult foreign students to communicative culture represents a uniform process of formation of system of knowledge, communicative skills and skills which are formed and improved during training dialogue speech (the ability to solve language problems by communicative means in concrete forms and situations of dialogues.
Dialogue is educational unit in which language is presented in a functional-system. Language is a special kind of the maximum intellectual, speech activities of the person.
Dialogue is created as a certain message about subjects and about the phenomena of the validity, reflecting attitude to them and the author´s influence on listening person (Dridze T.M., Zimnjaja I.A., Leontiev A.A., etc.).
Dialogue is the complex unit uniting all levels of language and speech (linguistic, semantic, psychological), helps to solve the problems of formation of foreign students´ communicative culture.
Training dynamism, stability, plasticity, purposefulness, openness, consciousness, efficiency of dialogue speech defines a level forming communicative culture of foreign students as these qualities determine adequacy of speech behavior to a communicative problem which is solved by authors of created dialogue-statement as a product of speech activity.
So, in such process dialogue - a complex method of training which realizes hierarchy of the purposes of the personally-focused training:
- at a didactic level it provides mastering by various methods, ways of the decision of problems, their generalization and ordering, integration of knowledge and skills;
- at a developing level dialogue provides development of divergent thinking, development of cognitive, research skills, provides true representation about the mathematician;
- at a personal level dialogue awakes an idea, provides an opportunity, to go through unexpectedness of decisions, their originality, amazing, a shock and delight.
Increase of a learning efficiency dialogue speeches, creation of conditions for strong mastering knowledge in a broad sense this word (as knowledge and practical skills) sees not only in perfection of the maintenance of knowledge, but also in perfection of receptions of management by formation theoretical and practical готовностей on the basis of activization речемыслительной activity of students. In other words, it is necessary to arm the student with skills to use rational ways of purchase of knowledge and their processing. It substantially will relieve trainees of an excessive expense of time and energy that as a whole will promote an intensification of process of training to dialogical interaction of foreign students.
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The work is submitted to the International scientific conference "Modern science technology", Tenerife, Spain, November, 20-27, 2008. Came to the editorial office on 14.10.2008.